'Valentine'

'Valentine'

LOVE How do you tell someone that you love them? Shakespeare Shall I compare thee to a summers day? Ill say she looks as clear as morning roses newly washed with dew. Burns Oh my luves like a red, red rose. But to see her was to love her, love but her, and love her forever. In groups You have five minutes to write down as many words, phrases and ideas linked to LOVE as you can. Feedback Now you have five minutes to write down as many words, phrases and ideas linked to VALENTINES DAY as you can. Feedback In groups

This time, you have five minutes to write down as many words, phrases and ideas linked to ONIONS as you can. Yeah, I know - onions?! Bear with me on this one! Feedback In groups In the poem you are going to read, the poet uses the symbol of an onion to describe love. Before reading the poem, decide in your group how an onion might represent love. Feedback In pairs: You are now going to be given a muddled copy of the poem Valentine by Carol Ann Duffy to cut up. Can you work out the correct order? Tip use the lines punctuation to help you. Once you have worked out the correct order of the poem, think about whether it fulfils your expectations of a poem titledValentine.

Valentine Carol Ann Duffy Not a red rose or a satin heart. I give you an onion. It is a moon wrapped in brown paper. It promises light like the careful undressing of love. Here. It will blind you with tears Like a lover. It will make your reflection a wobbling photo of grief. I am trying to be truthful. Not a cute card or a kissogram. I give you an onion. Its fierce kiss will stay on your lips, possessive and faithful as we are, for as long as we are. Take it. Its platinum loops shrink to a wedding-ring, if you like. Lethal.

Its scent will cling to your fingers, cling to your knife. The big picture... What is this poem about? In your groups try to come up with an answer. The big picture... How would you describe the poets view of love? Is it positive? negative? realistic? cynical? a mixture? Can you identify a turning point in the poem? The big picture... On the surface, the poem is about giving an unusual present for Valentines Day However, it is really an exploration of love and the nature of relationships between two people. The central image is of an onion and it is used

throughout the poem as an extended metaphor for love. The big picture... The poet seems to reject any overly sentimental and materialistic ideas about love. Instead she tries to present a moretruthfuland realistic picture of what love really is and what being in love truly means. Now you are going to explore how Duffy achieves this. In groups In your group, you are going to discuss a statement from the poem and try to explain it to your classmates. Think about: What the poet is saying about love How she says it Tone, language and structure Group 1 Conventional

romantic object She believes in gifts despite rejection of satin hearts It is a moon wrapped in brown paper. Hope It promises light ? like the careful undressing of love. The brown skin like paper idea of unwrapping a present Tender, gentle Layers in a person? Undressi ng each

other? Group 2 Love is blind... It will blind you with tears like a lover. Idea of the tears that come when you chop an onion Tears of joy? Or heartache? Love hurts A lover has the potential to cause

tears Group 3 It will make your reflection a wobbling photo of grief. Idea of looking at your reflection with tears in your eyes Idea of loss, hurt, pain and grief Group 4 Is this an oxymoron or symbolising passion? Love is unforgetta ble

The flavour of the onion is persistent, the taste is like a kiss that lasts Its fierce kiss will stay on your lips, possessive and faithful Love is possessive and faithful When a relationship ends, the bitterness can linger Group 5 Colour of onion (and ring) Suggests wedding

is not important to her? Its platinum loops shrink to a wedding-ring, if you like. You can make this Addressing her partner/lover more conventional but hints she doesnt care? Group 6 Hint of a threat? Its scent will cling to your fingers, cling to your knife. Links marriage to a wound

Love can cause hurt and pain Valentine Carol Ann Duffy Extended Metaphor The poet uses an extended metaphor which describes something (her relationship) as if it is the thing it resembles (an onion). You are going to explore this metaphor in more detail. Can you arrange the stages of the metaphor into the correct order? Use your copy of the poem to help you. Raw onions leave a strong taste on the lips Onions are chopped up

An onion is light underneath a darker outer skin Onions make a persons eyes water The smell of an onion lingers on the skin Onions are made up of rings Valentine - Complete the table below Stages of Extended Metaphor An onion is light underneath a darker outer skin Onions make a persons eyes water Raw onions leave a strong taste on the lips Onions are made up of rings

The smell of an onion lingers on the skin Onions are chopped up Line What is the poet saying nos about relationships? Valentine - Complete the table below Stages of Extended Metaphor Line What is the poet saying nos about relationships? An onion is light underneath a darker outer skin 3-5 Onions make a persons eyes water 7

Raw onions leave a strong taste on the lips 14 Onions are made up of rings 19 The smell of an onion lingers on the skin 22 Onions are chopped up 23 Can you comment on what the poet is saying about relationships? Stages of Extended Metaphor

Line What is the poet saying nos about relationships? An onion is light underneath a darker outer skin 3-5 Onions make a persons eyes water 7 Raw onions leave a strong taste on the lips 14 Onions are made up of rings 19

The smell of an onion lingers on the skin 22 Onions are chopped up 23 Can you comment on what the poet is saying about relationships? Stages of Extended Metaphor Line What is the poet saying nos about relationships? An onion is light underneath a darker outer skin 3-5 Onions make a persons eyes water

7 Raw onions leave a strong taste on the lips 14 Onions are made up of rings 19 The smell of an onion lingers on the skin 22 Onions are chopped up 23 As a relationship unfolds, different aspects of a person are revealed.

Also - sexual relationship. Can you comment on what the poet is saying about relationships? Stages of Extended Metaphor Line What is the poet saying nos about relationships? An onion is light underneath a darker outer skin 3-5 Onions make a persons eyes water 7 Raw onions leave a strong taste on the lips 14

Onions are made up of rings 19 The smell of an onion lingers on the skin 22 Onions are chopped up 23 As a relationship unfolds, different aspects of a person are revealed. Also - sexual relationship. Relationships can hurt you and make you cry Can you comment on what the poet is saying about relationships? Stages of Extended Metaphor

Line What is the poet saying nos about relationships? An onion is light underneath a darker outer skin 3-5 Onions make a persons eyes water 7 Raw onions leave a strong taste on the lips 14 Onions are made up of rings 19

The smell of an onion lingers on the skin 22 Onions are chopped up 23 As a relationship unfolds, different aspects of a person are revealed. Also - sexual relationship. Relationships can hurt you and make you cry The memories of a relationship are hard to forget Can you comment on what the poet is saying about relationships? Stages of Extended Metaphor Line What is the poet saying nos about relationships?

An onion is light underneath a darker outer skin 3-5 Onions make a persons eyes water 7 As a relationship unfolds, different aspects of a person are revealed. Also - sexual relationship. Relationships can hurt you and make you cry Raw onions leave a strong taste on the lips 14 The memories of a relationship are

hard to forget Onions are made up of rings 19 Wedding rings - marriage is the ultimate commitment in a relationship The smell of an onion lingers on the skin 22 Onions are chopped up 23 Can you comment on what the poet is saying about relationships? Stages of Extended Metaphor Line What is the poet saying

nos about relationships? An onion is light underneath a darker outer skin 3-5 Onions make a persons eyes water 7 As a relationship unfolds, different aspects of a person are revealed. Also - sexual relationship. Relationships can hurt you and make you cry Raw onions leave a strong taste on the lips 14

The memories of a relationship are hard to forget Onions are made up of rings 19 Wedding rings - marriage is the ultimate commitment in a relationship The smell of an onion lingers on the skin 22 Heartache, pain and bitterness continue after the end of a relationship Onions are chopped up 23 Can you comment on what the poet is saying about relationships?

Stages of Extended Metaphor Line What is the poet saying nos about relationships? An onion is light underneath a darker outer skin 3-5 Onions make a persons eyes water 7 As a relationship unfolds, different aspects of a person are revealed. Also - sexual relationship. Relationships can hurt you and make you cry Raw onions leave a

strong taste on the lips 14 The memories of a relationship are hard to forget Onions are made up of rings 19 Wedding rings - marriage is the ultimate commitment in a relationship The smell of an onion lingers on the skin 22 Heartache, pain and bitterness continue after the end of a relationship Onions are chopped up

23 Break up, destruction of relationship - love can hurt us Valentine Carol Ann Duffy Questions In groups Answer the questions which you have been given in as much detail as you can. Your answers will help you to revise for the exam, so the more detailed your notes the better! Write in full sentences, otherwise your notes will not make sense when you look back at them. Subject matter what is the poem about? 1) What can we tell about the subject matter of the poem from its title? 2) There is no indication of the identity or gender of the I or

you in the poem. What effect does this have? 3) What is the first indication that this is not a normal romantic poem? 4) Which lines are positive and which are negative? 5) What traditional symbols of love are mentioned in the poem, and what is the poets attitude towards these? 6) What gift does she consider to be a more suitable representation of love and relationships? Subject matter what is the poem about? 7) What original romantic images are connected to the gift which make it appropriate? 8) What negative aspects of this gift are compared to the negative aspects of love and relationships? 9) What imagery connected to what might be considered the ultimate commitment in a relationship is used in the poem? In what way is it suggested that this might also be considered a negative image? 10) What point is made at the end of the poem? 11) On the surface, this poem is about giving an unusual gift for Valentines day. What do you think the poem is really about?

Ideas and attitudes what is the poet trying to say? 1) Why does the poet reject the traditional symbols of love in the poem? 2) Think about the different views of love developed in the poem. What different aspects of love are revealed by the poet? 3) The tone is the way a speaker would say / read a text and a writers attitude towards the subject of a text. Can you identify the tone which is established by the language and structure of the poem? Does the tone change at all? Language how are words used in the poem? 1) What technique is used throughout the poem to compare love and an onion? 2) How does the imagery connected to the onion help the poet to develop her ideas? (what five different connections are there?) 3) Apart from these comparisons, the language tends to be quite simple and straightforward. Why do you think this is? 4) Write down some of the words / phrases in the poem which show that love is not always easy and straightforward.

Form and structure how is the poem put together? 1) Does the poem have a regular structure, rhyme scheme or rhythm? Are the lines and stanzas the same length? What effect does this have? 2) What effect does starting lines 1 and 12 with not have? 3) Why do you think some words or short phrases (i.e. Here, Take it and Lethal) have a line or stanza to themselves? 4) What is the connection between the three singles lines (1, 11 and 12)? Form and structure how is the poem put together? 5) Write down words or phrases from the poem which are connected to the three different views of love which you identified in question 2 in Ideas and attitudes. 6) What impression of love does the final verse leave us with? Personal Response Duffy says in line 11 of the poem, I am trying to be truthful. To what extent do you think she has achieved this?

Has she made you think more deeply about the subject of love? Do you think her view of love and relationships is realistic or overly cynical? Valentine Carol Ann Duffy Annotate your copy of the poem The poems title suggests that it is going to be about love and romance. Valentine It seems to be a humorous poem about giving an unusual present for Valentines day but it is really a serious exploration of love and relationships. The poet uses an extended metaphor to

compare her love and the relationship to an onion. She wants her partner to know shes chosen this because she feels it is the most genuine declaration of her love. Her rejection of these symbols is emphasised by placingNotat the start of the line. The poet rejects traditional symbols of love, she feels they have become meaningless, superficial and insignificant. Not a red rose or a satin heart. This is a direct and personal declaration of love

I give you an onion. but no mention of gender or identity makes it universal it could be any lover to another. She offers her lover an unusual gift which represents her love in many different ways. Moonsuggests romance it is supposed to govern womens passions. The outer skin is like wrapping paper on a present. The layers represent lovers getting to know each other at the start of a relationship as the relationship unfolds different aspects of the person are revealed. It is a moon wrapped in brown paper.

light is positive; the moons light It promises light represents love, romance and truth. like the careful undressing of love. Peeling the layers of the onion suggests the couple undressing to make love, as well as revealing their true natures gradually as they get to know each other. Structure (lines 3-5) The start of the poem is optimistic, describing the romance and passion at the start of a relationship as you get to know each other: promises, light, undressing. Here. She is offering her lover an onion because it is like her love and relationships it is beautiful,

but can cause pain and upset and bring hurt or sorrow. Short line emphasises the poets emotional plea as she offers her gift. It will blind you with tears like a lover. It will make your reflection a wobbling photo of grief. This is a joke, mocking the way tears blur your vision. You would be unable to see your reflection clearly because of the tears. Structure (lines 7-10) - True and passionate love can be painful and cause tears: blind, tears, grief. The lover seems to be reluctant

to accept the onion i.e. the poets love Grief suggests mourning and the end of the relationship? Also uncertainty and loss. Is Duffy suggesting that you have to be honest to make a relationship work? This is Duffys aim in writing the poem. She wants to be honest about love and its

negative aspects, rather than romanticising it as most love poems do. Short line again emphasises the poets emotional plea as she offers her gift. I am trying to be truthful. Duffy contrasts meaningless stereotypical gifts with her sincerity. Not a cute card or a kissogram. Lines 1 and 12 by repeating the same structure and setting these lines apart, the poet emphasises her rejection of stereotypical gifts. Structure (lines 14-17) strength and power of

relationships: fierce, possessive, faithful. Language of wedding ceremony Duffy uses vocabulary which is unusual for a love poem: fierce suggests aggression and possessive is negative, suggesting a claustrophobic relationship. The lingering smell and taste of an onion are like the passion of love, a kiss which lasts. Powerful love is difficult to forget, just like the lasting smell and taste

of an onion. I give you an onion. Its fierce kiss will stay on your lips, possessive and faithful as we are, for as long as we are. Suggestion that they may not stay together? Duffy uses word choice to convey the passion and strength of the relationship. Short line emphasises that the lover has still not accepted the gift. The poet is almost demanding that she takes it does this suggest panic? Pleading / commanding tone?

Take it. Its platinum loops shrink to a The onions rings are likened to a wedding ring the longer the relationship continues the more serious it will become, possibly leading to marriage. wedding-ring, if you like. Structure (lines 19-21) Commitment Claustrophobia / being trapped? Half-hearted proposal of

marriage. The tone is very uncertain when discussing the commitment of marriage. Based on what youve learned about the relationship so far, do you think they should marry? One word line for impact. The intensity of the relationship may lead to its destruction. Overwhelmed by the rejection of the gift, the speaker resorts to threatening, almost violent language. This unusual word choice suggests something deadly / dangerous. Lethal.Possessiveness? Its scent will cling to your fingers, Cling to your knife. The knife would be marked with the

onions scent, as if ready to punish any betrayal. Structure (lines 22-24) not a positive ending, suggests the end of the relationship. One partner may cut the onion i.e. end the relationship. Powerful love is very difficult to forget and may lead you into dangerous situations where the final outcome may be brutal / violent. Valentine Structure Not a red rose or a satin heart. I give you an onion It is a moon wrapped in brown paper. It promises light like the careful undressing of love.

Here. It will blind you with tears Like a lover. It will make your reflection a wobbling photo of grief. I am trying to be truthful. Not a cute card or a kissogram. I give you an onion. Its fierce kiss will stay on your lips, possessive and faithful as we are, for as long as we are. Take it. Its platinum loops shrink to a wedding-ring, if you like. Lethal. Its scent will cling to your fingers, cling to your knife. 3-5 Positive, optimistic 7-10 Pain and

tears 1417 strength and power 19-20 Commitment 2123 End of relationship Valentine - Structure Lines The speaker does not appear to like traditional gifts of love and 1 5 instead wants to give a seemingly unpleasant and unusual gift of an onion. It is compared to the moon and has positive connotations of the hope felt at the start of a new relationship. Lines The speaker insists that the lover take the onion even if it brings sadness and tears. Just as an onions juices can make a person 6 cry, so can the arguments and heartbreak that go along with the 11 reality of modern relationships.

Lines Rejection of traditional tokens of love is reinforced and repetition of 12 the more realistic idea of an onion is given. The speaker embraces the passion that goes along with a modern relationship but also 17 accepts that it may not last forever. Lines Explore how relationships can lead to marriage but may also end 18 in heartbreak. The speaker acknowledges that the (often painful) memories of a relationship can stay with a person, just as an 23 onions scent will linger. Valentine Structure Written in free verse there is no obvious rhyme scheme or rhythm. This echoes the naturalness of speech and mirrors

the realistic nature of the onion as a gift. Not a red rose or a satin heart. I give you an onion It is a moon wrapped in brown paper. It promises light like the careful undressing of love. Here. The voice has It will blind you with tears particular impact Like a lover. in lines 1, 11 and It will make your reflection 12 when Duffy a wobbling photo of grief. I am trying to be truthful. explicitly states Not a cute card or a kissogram. her rejection of I give you an onion. traditional and

Its fierce kiss will stay on your lips, clichd Valentines possessive and faithful gifts as we are, for as long as we are. Take it. Its platinum loops shrink to a wedding-ring, if you like. Lethal. Its scent will cling to your fingers, cling to your knife. Valentine Structure Placing Not a at the start and middle of the poem emphasises her rejection of these traditional symbols of love

Not a red rose or a satin heart. I give you an onion It is a moon wrapped in brown paper. It promises light like the careful undressing of love. Lines 1 and 12 Direct, blunt Here. It will blind you with tears statements that Like a lover. use examples in It will make your reflection order to a wobbling photo of grief. demonstrate their I am trying to be truthful. lack of any real Not a cute card or a kissogram. meaning I give you an onion. Its fierce kiss will stay on your lips, possessive and faithful as we are, for as long as we are. Take it.

Its platinum loops shrink to a wedding-ring, if you like. Lethal. Its scent will cling to your fingers, cling to your knife. Valentine Structure Not a red rose or a satin heart. I give you an onion It is a moon wrapped in brown paper. It promises light like the careful undressing of love. Direct statement that emphasises Here. It will blind you with tears the speakers Like a lover. belief in a more It will make your reflection honest approach a wobbling photo of grief.

to love and I am trying to be truthful. relationships. Not a cute card or a kissogram. I give you an onion. Its fierce kiss will stay on your lips, possessive and faithful as we are, for as long as we are. Take it. Its platinum loops shrink to a wedding-ring, if you like. Lethal. Its scent will cling to your fingers, cling to your knife. Valentine Connotations Positive Negative Do you agree?

Not a red rose or a satin heart. I give you an onion It is a moon wrapped in brown paper. It promises light like the careful undressing of love. Here. It will blind you with tears Like a lover. It will make your reflection a wobbling photo of grief. I am trying to be truthful. Not a cute card or a kissogram. I give you an onion. Its fierce kiss will stay on your lips, possessive and faithful as we are, for as long as we are. Take it. Its platinum loops shrink to a wedding-ring, if you like. Lethal. Its scent will cling to your fingers, cling to your knife.

Connotations Words with connotations of traditional / fake love Words with connotations of modern / realistic love Onion Blind Tears Lover Wobbling Grief Fierce Possessive Lethal Cling Knife Valentine Tone Established through

language and structure Direct and sincere a heartfelt declaration of love. Begins positively Not a red rose or a satin heart. I give you an onion It is a moon wrapped in brown paper. but becomes It promises light more sinister like the careful undressing of love. Here. as the It will blind you with tears potential Like a lover. failure of the It will make your reflection

relationship is a wobbling photo of grief. considered. I am trying to be truthful. Not a cute card or a kissogram. I give you an onion. Its fierce kiss will stay on your lips, The possessive and faithful powerful as we are, for as long as we are. tone Take it. conveys the Its platinum loops shrink to a wedding-ring, true strength if you like. of the Lethal. relationship. Its scent will cling to your fingers, cling to your knife. Tone

In groups, you are going to examine Duffys use of tone in the poem. Identify the tone in each section and the word clues which help you to identify this. This will help you to understand how each section of the poem links to the others. Tone Lines 15 611 Feedback Tone Direct Honest / realistic Word Clues Positive / hopeful

Not Onion, brown paper Moon, undressing, light Romantic Promises love Blunt / direct Here. It will Sad / frustrated Blind, tears, wobbling, grief Honest Trying to be truthful Tone Feedback

Lines 1217 18-23 Tone Word Clues Direct Not Passionate Fierce, kiss, lips, possessive, faithful Cautious / realistic For as long as we are Direct / blunt

Take it. Lethal. Open-minded If you like. Hurt / cynical / wary Cling (2), scent, knife You are now going to work in groups to produce a poster on an aspect of the poem which will form part of a wall display. You will be asked to produce notes on one or more of the following aspects of the poem: Meaning What is the poem about? Who is the speaker? - are they dramatised (a character) Who is being spoken to or addressed? What is being spoken about? Theme(s) of the poem - what is it really about?

Setting/culture - wheres the poem set? Which culture is it from /about? Where does the poem get to from start to end? Structure Rhyme - is there a rhyme scheme? Couplets? Internal rhyme? Rhythm - how many syllables per line? Is it regular or free verse? Why are some different lengths? Stanzas - How many? How do they change? Is there a narrative? Lines - how many are their in each verse? Do some stand out? Enjambment - do the lines run on to the next line or stanza? End stopping - does each line finish at the end of a sentence? Form - does the poem have a shape to it? Poetry Revision- MITSL Meaning, Imagery, Tone, Structure, Language Always link everything to meaning. Ask yourself how does this contribute to the meaning? Why has the poet used this technique? How would the poem be spoken? (angry, sad, nostalgic, bitter, humorous etc) Does

this change? What kinds of words are used? Language Puns - a pun is a play on words - Shear Class! if Shearer scores. Connotation - associations that words have (as "stallion" connotes a certain kind of horse with certain sorts of uses)? Double meanings - butts in - putting bottoms in or interrupting. Ambiguity - is the word or phrase deliberately unclear? Could it mean Imagery Alliteration - the repeating of initial sounds. Assonance - is the term used for the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of green weed hung Tone opposite things or many different things?. Word order - are the words in an unusual order why? Adjectives - what are the key describing words?

Key words and phrases - do any of the words or phrases stand out? Do they shock? Are the words violent or sad down...'. etc? Metaphor - comparing two things by saying one is the other. Simile - comparing two things saying one is like or as the other. Personification - giving something non-human human qualities. Onomatopoeia - words that sound like the thing they describe. Repetition - does the poet repeat words or phrases? Slang or unusual words and misspellings - Does the poet use slang or informal language? Are American words used? Intertextuality - does the poem reference another text? Style - does the poet copy another style? (Newspaper, play etc)

Valentine - MITSL Meaning, Imagery, Tone, Structure, Language Meaning What is the poem about? Who is the speaker? - are they dramatised (a character) Who is being spoken to or addressed? What is being spoken about? Theme(s) of the poem - what is it really about? Setting/culture wheres the poem set? Which culture is it from/about? Where does the poem get to from start to end? Valentine - MITSL Meaning, Imagery, Tone, Structure, Language Structure Rhyme - is there a rhyme scheme? Couplets? Internal rhyme? Rhythm - how many syllables per line? Is it regular or free verse? Why are some different lengths? Stanzas - How many? How do they change? Is there a

narrative? Lines - how many are their in each verse? Do some stand out? Enjambment - do the lines run on to the next line or stanza? End stopping - does each line finish at the end of a sentence? Form - does the poem have a shape to it? Valentine - MITSL Meaning, Imagery, Tone, Structure, Language Imagery Alliteration - the repeating of initial sounds. Assonance - is the term used for the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of green weed hung down...'. Metaphor - comparing two things by saying one is the other. Simile - comparing two things saying one is like or as the other. Personification - giving something non-human human qualities. Onomatopoeia - words that sound like the thing they describe. Repetition - does the poet repeat words or phrases?

Language What kinds of words are used? Puns - a pun is a play on words - Shear Class! if Shearer scores. Connotation - associations that words have (as "stallion" connotes a certain kind of horse with certain sorts of uses)? Double meanings - butts in - putting bottoms in or interrupting. Ambiguity - is the word or phrase deliberately unclear? Could it mean opposite things or many different things?. Word order - are the words in an unusual order why? Adjectives - what are the key describing words? Key words and phrases - do any of the words or phrases stand out? Do they shock? Are the words violent or sad etc? Slang or unusual words and misspellings - Does the poet use slang or informal language? Are American words used? Intertextuality - does the poem reference another text? Style - does the poet copy another style? (Newspaper, play etc) Characters - if there are characters how do they speak? Valentine - MITSL Meaning, Imagery, Tone, Structure, Language

Tone How would the poem be spoken? (angry, sad, nostalgic, bitter, humorous etc) Does this change? Valentine - MITSL Meaning, Imagery, Tone, Structure, Language Always link everything to meaning. Ask yourself how does this contributes to the meaning? Why has the poet used this technique?

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