Scanner for Automated 3D Modeling of Small Objects Group B CREOL Cary McEwan CPE Sommer Hilliard EE Isaias Velez EE Sam Benjamin PE Motivations 3D printers are becoming popular, and the demand for

3D scanners isnt far behind 3D modeling software is expensive and difficult to learn Countless applications for hobbyists and creative types Specifications Parameter Specification Maximum Scan Time

10 minutes Enclosure Dimensions 50x20x13 cm Weight ~5 lbs Deliverables Ready-to-print .stl & .ply files Production Cost

$274 Project Block Diagram Raw Images & Processing A. An image is captured with laser illumination active. B. A reference image of the scene is captured with no laser illumination. C. Image subtraction isolates laser line. D. A maximum intensity value is found in each pixel row and its location is indexed for point cloud

storage Point Cloud Generation: Old Approach Intrinsic Calibration Extrinsic Calibration: Laser Plane Extrinsic Calibration: Turntable Express Points in

Global Coordinates Obtain Camera Matrix Define Laser Plane Define Turntable Coordinate System Rotate into Place Point Cloud Generation: New Approach Stretch Segmented

Laser Line A = (B/sin) = ) = St*B St = (1/sin) = ) = 1.55 Rotate About Platform Center Center defined in terms of pixels. This is determined through trial and error. Scaling Constant

Sc = 0.088 Initial Prototype Design Platform and Base Medium Density Fiber (MDF) Low Cost Light material Fast design iterations with CNC machine Dimensions: Camera-to-platform center: 250mm Base: 500mm x 200mm Camera-to-laser: 135mm

Vibrational Interference Mounting screws -> increased vibrations on platform while rotating Heat Shedding: Mounted heat sinks and open-air design Meshing Post point cloud processing in Meshlab server *.mlx scripts Poisson Disk Sampling Takes sample of dense point cloud and creates poisson disks around the cloud Improves calculation using subsample Compute vertex normals

Nearest Neighbor Search (100+) Poisson Reconstruction Uses octrees to sample points recursively divided into 8 octants Software Implementation Python scientific computing stack Numpy -> C/C++/ Fortran bindings for fast matrix operations OpenCV C++ binding for Python Software compensation for hardware issues

Open Design due to image and channel subtraction Vibrational interference Misalignment System Synchronization Arduino UNO Raspberry Pi Model A Raspberry Pi 3 Model B

BeagleBone Black Operating Voltage (V) 5V 5V 5.1 V 5V DC Current

(mA) 46.5 mA 500 mA 1000 mA 1200 mA Power Consumption (mW) 232.5 mW

2500 mW 5100 mW 6000 mW System Price ($) $20 $25 $35

$53 Cost Budget Percentage (%) 9.5% 11.9% 16.7% 25.2%


I/O Potential GPIO Pin Count 14 8 40 65 Clock Rate Clock Rate

16 MHz 700 MHz 1.2 GHz 1 GHz Raspberry Pi 3 Model B Power Consumption 1 GB SDRAM Onboard HDMI

No code size limitation Extensive developer community $35 Development Environment Language(s): Python IDE(s): Pycharm, Spyder OS: Linux (Raspbian) Version Control: Device Communication Device Communication Stepper Motor Driver

RPi.GPIO Python Library Provides control of each of the 40 GPIO Pins Steps taken based on rising edge clock. Simulate this by toggling the pin from off to on. Device Communication Laser RPi.GPIO Python Library Signal of 1 Laser ON Signal of 0 Laser OFF Facilitates Image Subtraction Device Communication

Raspberry Pi Camera PiCamera Python Library Connected directly to camera port vs. GPIO Pin Capture: Take picture. Device Communication Flow Chart Power Flow Chart Stepper Motor NEMA 17 Stepper Motor

2 phase 750 mA/phase 400 - 3200 steps/rev Precise position & speed control High low speed torque NiMh Battery 7.2V 5000mAh

Charged at rate of 2A in 200mins Lightweight No memory cell effect Inexpensive Stepper Motor Driver Chip Allegro A3967 Microstepping Driver 24 pin package Full, half, quarter, and eighth step modes 750mA, 30V output rating

Supply voltage 3.3V to 5V 10.3mm 15.4mm Switching Regulator 10mm LM2576-ADJ Capable of driving 3 amp loads Maximum output ripple

voltage - 50mV Adjustable output and high efficiency 15mm N-Channel Mosfet IRFZ44N Low on-resistance Fast switching speed Highly efficient and reliable 10.3mm

15.8mm Microcontrolle r Subsystem Battery Switch 5V Switching Regulator Raspberry Pi Camera Module

Display Stepper Motor Subsystem Battery Switch Stepper Motor Driver Stepper Motor Raspberry Pi

Stepper Motor Driver Schema tic Switching Regulator Prototype 5V Switching Regulator (LM2576-ADJ) Power Management Initial Prototype Testing Full System Schematic

PCB Administrative Content Budget Note: Equal Contributions by group members for total costs of project Description Quantity Price/Unit

Item Total PCB 1 $80.10 $81.10 Laser 1 $23.95

$23.95 Camera 1 $29.95 $29.95 Microcontroller 1 $34.99

$34.99 Battery Pack 1 $34.90 $34.90 Battery Charger 1 $17.99

$17.99 Stepper Motor 1 $16.95 $16.95 Mounting Device 1 $4.95

$14.85 Misc. Hardware - - $20.00 Total $274.68 Task Division Name

Primary Secondar y Power Somme r Isaias Optics Sam N/A

Enclosur e Isaias Sam What We Would Improve? Introduce multithreading to further reduce scan time Improve meshing algorithm Hardwire RPi GPIO pins on PCB More robust calibration Improve User Interface


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