WVU Work Climate Survey

WVU Work Climate Survey

WVU Faculty Work Climate Survey Leslie E. Tower, PhD Associate Professor of Social Work & Public Administration Council for Womens Concerns (CWC) Sampling All full-time WVU faculty were invited to participate The overall response rate was 44% (970). Data Collection Method Electronic survey administered on Survey Monkey The survey was opened for 2 months in the spring 2009 semester. Data Collection Method All full-time faculty were invited to participate through a web-link Posts to several MIX, E-News, etc. alerting faculty of survey Announcement to Faculty Senate to encourage Senators to inform their constituents (Welfare Committee endorsed survey) Colorful flyers posted around campus to educate & remind Email invitation was sent to Provosts official Faculty List-serve Four reminders sent to WVU list-serves (e.g., eNews & MIX). Each announcement increased the response rate. Follow-up email invitation sent to the Provosts official Faculty Listserve. Instrumentation

Literature review identified several Climate scales Jacobs, Bergen, & Korn (2000) selected Subscales: Positive Climate Cohesion Sexual Harassment Gender Discrimination Gender Insensitivity (e.g., inclusive language) Instrumentation Climate instrument has demonstrated validity & reliability Selected dimensions of other instruments incorporated to strengthen scale Designed a new subscale: Additional Discrimination Instrumentation Content validity 4 experts in field, including authors of the original instrument. The instrument was further revised based on the experts comments. Scale Cronbach alpha = .94 Subscale alphas ranged from .71 to .87.

Instrumentation Added items at Faculty Senate Welfare Committees request: Issues (10 items) Workload Faculty/Staff Shortages Benefits (8 items) Paid maternity/paternity leave Domestic Partner Benefits Response Rate College Response Rates (N=960) Item Agriculture Arts & Sciences Business & Economics Creative Arts Engineering & Mineral Res HR & Ed Journalism Law Physical Activity & Sports Partial College Total Study Actual % Frequency Frequency Response 60 108 55.56% 212

369 57.45% 22 66 33.33% 40 74 54.05% 49 178 27.53% 50 98 51.02% 12 22 54.55% 13 30 43.33% 14 25 56.00% 472 970 48.66% Dentistry Medicine Nursing Pharmacy HSC Total 14

178 34 16 242 32 746 46 40 864 43.76% 23.86% 73.91% 40.00% 28.01% Extension 126 163 77.30% Potomac State Institute of Tech WVU Parkersberg Off-Campus Total 17 15 9 41

46 99 87 232 36.96% 15.15% 10.34% 17.67% Other (e.g., librarians) Missing Total 79 10 970 2,229 43.52% Demographics Demographics Characteristics: ALL Full-time Faculty Item Frequency Sex Female 445 Male 372 Race Similar to the Majority

676 Minority 49 Prefer Not to Answer 99 Religion Similar to the Majority 404 Minority 108 None 137 Prefer Not to Answer 174 Sexual Orientation Similar to the Majority 696 Minority 32 Prefer Not to Answer 94 Age 20-30 65 31-40 195 41-50 211 51-60 245 61-70 92 71 or older 7

Extended Family in the Area No 563 Yes 260 Lives with Partner Yes 629 No 189 Hours Partners Paid Employment Full-time 393 Part-time 120 No Paid Employment 97 Percent 54.5% 45.5% 82.0% 5.9% 12.0% 49.1% 13.1% 16.6% 21.1% 84.7% 3.9% 11.4% 8.0% 23.9% 25.9%

30.1% 11.3% 0.9% 68.4% 31.6% 76.9% 19.5% 64.4% 19.6% 15.9% Professional Characteristics Professional Characteristics: ALL Full-time Faculty Item Frequency Percent Appointment 9-month 407 42.5% 12-month 512 53.4% Other 39 4.1% Level Junior Faculty 392 40.5% Senior Faculty 411 42.5% Other 165

17.0% Rank Tenured 343 35.5% Tenure Track 193 20.0% Clinical Track 157 16.3% Library Track 25 2.6% Other 247 25.6% Administrator No 794 82.7% Yes 166 17.3% Climate Scale Results Climate was moderate for all WVU faculty Scale: Men perceive WVU Campus Climate to be significantly better than women (F=17.584, p=.0001). Subscales: Men perceive: more positive climate (F= 3.864, p=.050), less sexual harassment (F= 6.033, p=.014),

less gender discrimination (F= 94.357, p=.014), and less gender insensitivity compared to women (F=42.043, p=.000). Legend Green: A Strength 76% - 100% of faculty endorse item Blue: A moderate need of being addressed 51% - 75% of faculty endorse item Red: A critical need of being addressed 0% - 50% of faculty endorse item Positive Climate Positive Climate (PC): ALL Full-time Faculty Strongly Disagree/ Disagree Neutral Agree/ Strongly Agree 8. I feel safe in and around my workplace. 24. I have the opportunity to collaborate with other faculty at WVU. 5.7% (49) 10.0% (86) 7.0% (61) 12.1% (104)

87.3% (756) 78.0% (673) 1. My opinions are respected at work. 3. I plan to make academia a life long career. 9. I am treated by administration and colleagues with courtesy and respect. 37. My talents are recognized by administration or colleagues. 14.4% (125) 8.9% (77) 15.8% (137) 11.2% (97) 19.6% (169) 13.6% (118) 74.5% (647) 71.5% (618) 70.6% (613) 20.9% (175) 16.0% (134) 63.1% (528) 34. Taking time off for family indicates to administration colleagues a lack of commitment to my job. 29. My work schedule is sensitive to my social and family commitments. 22. I am expected to work an unhealthy and unreasonable amount of hours to succeed. 13. Mentoring at WVU has been beneficial to my career.

49.6% (412) 24.5% (204) 25.9% (215) 29.2% (244) 23.2% (194) 47.7% (399) 43.0% (371) 18.8% (162) 38.2% (329) 33.6% (293) 26.8% (233) 39.6% (345) *Bolded percentages are most desired. Cohesion Cohesion (C): ALL Full-time Faculty Strongly Disagree/ Disagree Neutral

Agree/ Strongly Agree 30. I am proud to be a member of this faculty. 14. WVU is a friendly workplace. 7. There is a little collegiality among people at WVU. 2. There is a feeling of unity and cohesion in my workplace. 9.4% (79) 11.2% (97) 55.9% (480) 32.4% (282) 18.4% (154) 17.6% (152) 24.4% (209) 16.9 (147) 72.2% (606) 71.2% (616) 19.7% (169) 50.7 (441) 10. There is a feeling of positive morale. 19. Work is fairly distributed among colleagues in my workplace. 38.2% (331) 47.6% (410) 20.4% (177) 17.2% (148)

41.4% (359) 35.3% (304) *Bolded percentages are most desired. Sexual Harassment Sexual Harassment (SH): ALL Full-time Faculty Strongly Disagree/ Disagree Neutral Agree/ Strongly Agree 25. Colleagues make me uncomfortable by commenting on my physical appearance. 84.1% (707) 10.8% (91) 5.1% (43) 21. I have heard denigrating remarks about persons of my gender. 17. Administration, faculty, or staff tell sexist jokes. 74.0% (638) 12.8% (110) 13.2% (114)

73.2% (632) 15.3% (132) 11.5% (99) 11. People who make complaints of sexual harassment are protected from harmful consequences. 23. Sexual harassment complaints are investigated adequately. 38. Sexual harassment incidents occur at WVU. 14.8% (124) 42.8% (358) 42.3% (354) 11.4% (94) 13.5% (110) 59.0% (486) 43.7% (357) 29.6% (244) 42.8% (350) *Bolded percentages are most desired. Gender Discrimination Gender Discrimination (GD): ALL Full-time Faculty Strongly Disagree/ Disagree Neutral

Agree/ Strongly Agree 12. I have been asked intrusive questions about my personal life at work. 15. I have experienced discrimination in the promotion process because of my gender. 80.9% (702) 8.9% (77) 10.3% (89) 77.1% (662) 14.9% (128) 8.0% (69) 44. I have equal access to departmental resources (e.g., space & laboratory support staff) as my peers. 26. I believe qualified men are given more career opportunities than qualified women. 40. Womens views are represented fairly on major committees. 19.9% (166) 13.8% (115) 66.3% (554)

52.2% (436) 21.1% (176) 26.8% (224) 10.2% (84) 38.6% (317) 51.2% (421) 32.1% (262) 43.3% (354) 24.6% (201) 32. There is gender-equity in salaries. *Bolded percentages are most desired. Gender Insensitivity Gender Insensitivity (GI): ALL Full-time Faculty Strongly Disagree/ Disagree Neutral Agree/ Strongly Agree 43. I have the same opportunities for informal networking as colleagues of the opposite gender.

16. Id recommend WVU to a prospective faculty member of my gender. 27. Women are adequately represented among the WVU faculty. 33. Faculty are accepted and respected by their peers regardless of gender. 42. Contributions made by male and female faculty are equally valued. 6. At WVU, people use inclusive language (e.g., he/she, chairperson). 13.2% (110) 16.8% (140) 69.9% (581) 11.4% (98) 20.7% (172) 68.6% (590) 9.4% (79) 18.4% (154) 72.2% (606) 10.7% (90) 18.9% (158) 70.4% (590)

15.8% (132) 20.7% (173) 63.5% (530) 12.1% (104) 31.9% (275) 56.0% (483) 41. Women are interrupted at meetings more often than men. 28. When I speak out on issues of concern to me, I am labeled a troublemaker. 48.1% (396) 47.1% (392) 35.2% (290) 23.6% (197) 16.7% (138) 29.3% (244) *Bolded percentages are most desired. Additional Discrimination Additional Discrimination Items: ALL Full-time Faculty Strongly Disagree/ Disagree Neutral

Agree/ Strongly Agree 5. I have heard denigrating remarks by faculty, staff, or students about minority religious groups. 76.1% (659) 9.4% (81) 14.5% (126) 18. I have heard denigrating remarks by faculty, staff, or students about race/ethnicity. 31. I have heard denigrating remarks by faculty, staff, or students about gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender persons. 36. Administration respects my religious and cultural holidays when scheduling work commitments (e.g., clinical days, important meetings, or events). 73.1% (632) 10.3% (89) 16.6% (143) 68.2% (572) 13.5% (113) 18.4% (154) 9.2% (76)

36.1% (299) 54.8% (454) 39. Appropriate accommodations are made for faculty with physical disabilities. 14.8% (122) 41.3% (341) 43.9% (693) *Bolded percentages are most desired. Differences in Minority Status Racial Minority (n=49) The Positive Climate Subscale items Additional Discrimination items tend to show a pattern of disparate perceptions Sexual Orientation Minority (n=32) Selected items throughout the survey show disparate perceptions (e.g., intrusive questions, sexist & homophobic jokes) Religious Minority (n=108) Gender Discrimination Subscale items

Gender Insensitivity items Additional Discrimination items tend to show a pattern of disparate perceptions. Differences in Minority Status Although the n is small, this information may be helpful in thinking about the disparate experiences/perceptions minority faculty may face and how to transform WVU into a more inclusive environment for all faculty, staff, & students. Open-Ended Item If there are any experiences or stories you would like to share about the climate or workplace culture at WVU, please do so below. Used grounded theory tradition of coding Glaser & Strauss 1967; Huberman & Miles 2002; Corbin & Strauss 2008 Out of the total respondents (N=970), nearly 1 in 5 (19.3%) provided an answer to the open-ended question (N=188). Open-Ended Themes Themes from Open-Ended Item Total (N=188) Experience Sex Women (N=112)

Men (N=73) 1. Admin Lacks Leadership Skills 22.9% (43) 25.0% (28) 19.2% (14) 2. Harassment/Discrimination 21.3% (40) 24.1% (27) 17.8% (13) 3. Lack of Recognition 18.6% (35) 19.6% (22) 16.4% (12) 4. Inadequate Resources, Space, Financial Support 13.3% (25) 14.3% (16)

11.0% (8) 5. Unfair Distribution of Work 13.3% (25) 14.3% (16) 11.0% (8) 6. Excluded from Dept. Activities 12.2% (23) 13.4% (15) 11.0% (8) 7. Bias in Hiring/Advancement 11.7% (22) 15.2% (17) 6.8% (5) 8. Inadequate Work-Family Policies 9.6% (18) 9.8% (11) 9.6% (7)

9. Supportive Climate/Admin 8.5% (16) 6.2% (7) 12.3% (9) 10. Survey Criticism/Critique 8.5% (16) 4.5% (5) 15.1% (11) 11. No Experience/Apathy 6.4% (12) 5.4% (6) 8.2% (6) 12. Fearful to Disclose 5.3% (10) 7.1% (8) 1.4% (1) 13. Lack of Clarity in Policy

4.3% (8) 3.6% (4) 4.1% (3) 14. Reverse Discrimination 2.1% (4) 0.9% (1) 2.7% (2) Issues Issues Extremely Important or Important ISSUES that Need to be Addressed. HSC Extension Potomac St I of Tech *WVU Health Insurance 88.0% (365) 83.5%(177) 88.2% (89) 87.6% (14) 86.6% (13) Retirement Benefits 85.0% (352) 86.7% (183) 92.1% (93) 93.8% (15) 100.0% (15) Faculty Shortages 76.3% (316) 84.8% (179) 65.0% (65) 68.8% (11) 86.7% (13) Workload 75.5% (310) 70.7% (150) 74.3% (75) 75.0% (12) 80.0% (12) Staff Shortages 66.1% (271) 69.4% (147) 62.3% (63) 56.3% (9) 93.3% (14) Physical Facilities (e.g, 66.1% (271) 69.5% (146) 59.0% (49) 75.0% (12) 86.7% (13)

Parkersberg 75.0% (6) 75.0% (6) 75.0% (6) 87.5% (7) 50.0% (4) 50.0% (4) office, lab) Support/Resources (e.g., supplies, equipment, technical support) 64.4% (266) 54.7% (225) 51.7% (213) 47.1% (194) Workplace Safety Parking Networking Opportunities *Excludes what is reported separately 67.0% (142) 59.9% (127) 63.1% (133) 48.8% (103) 70.0% (70) 59.5% (60) 33.7% (34)

54.4% (58) 75.1% (12) 62.6% (10) 31.3% (5) 62.5% (10) 86.6% (13) 66.6% (10) 28.5% (4) 40.0% (6) 62.5% (5) 37.5% (3) 25.0% (2) 75.0% (6) Issues Women identified significantly more ISSUES: Workload (79% vs. 68%; X2= 11.874, p=.000) Support Resources (68% vs. 62%; X2= 3.390, p=.039) Workplace Safety (61% vs. 52%; X2=7.109, p=.005) Parking (55% vs. 49%; X2=3.487, p=.036) Networking opportunities (53% vs. 43%; X2= 6.929, p=.005) Men identified significantly more ISSUES: Health Insurance (89% vs. 84%; X2=4.197, p=.026) Benefits

Benefits Extremely Important or Important BENEFITS for Recruiting or Attracting Quality Faculty HSC Extension Potomac St I of Tech Parkersberg *WVU Tuition Remission for 62.5% (5) 71.0% (290) 61.7% (129) 70.3% (71) 93.8% (15) 40.0% (9) partner/dependents Sick Leave 50.0% (4) 70.4% (287) 77.4% (161) 92.1% (94) 87.5% (14) 73.4% (11) Dual Career Assistance 69.1% (282) Paid Maternity/Paternity 66.2% (271) Leave On-Site Childcare 65.5% (266) Workload adjustments 61.4% (252) for new parents Domestic partner 59.2% (243) benefits Lactation support 32.7% (131) *Excludes what is reported separately 65.1% (136) 50.0% (51)

68.8% (11) 66.7% (10) 62.5% (5) 57.1% (120) 70.6% (72) 68.8% (11) 73.3% (11) 50.0% (4) 65.4% (136) 51.2% (85) 58.8% (60) 63.3% (64) 75.1% (12) 62.6% (10) 64.3% (9) 40.0% (6) 50.0% (4) 37.5% (3) 47.6% (100)

37.6% (38) 68.8% (11) 46.7% (7) 37.5% (3) 30.7% (64) 41.6% (42) 68.8% (11) 35.7% (5) 0% (0) Benefits & Female Faculty Preferences Women perceived the following BENEFITS to be significantly more important to hiring & retaining quality faculty: Sick leave (83% vs. 68%; X2= 24.515, p=.000) Paid maternity/paternity leave (72% vs. 56%; X2= 23.386, p=.000) On-site childcare (72% vs. 57%; X2= 20.266, p=.000) Workload adjustments for new parents (66% vs. 51%; X2= 17.726, p=.000) Domestic partner benefits (60% vs. 47%; X2= 13.657, p=.000) Lactation support (41% vs. 21%; X2= 18.202, p=.000) Benefits & Younger Faculty Preferences

Benefits more important to younger faculty (20-40 years old): Paid maternity/paternity leave (81% vs. 57%; X2= 46.255, p=.000) Workload adjustments for new parents (77% vs. 50%; X2= 50.246, p<.000) On-site Childcare (73.4% vs. 61%; X2= 11.418, p=.000) Domestic Partner Benefits (61% vs. 51%; X2= 8.046, p=.003)44% vs Lactation Support (44% vs. 30%; X2= 13.505, p=.000) Tuition Remission (X2= 2.469, p=.067). Benefits & Older Faculty Preferences Benefits More Important to Older Faculty (41 & older): Health Insurance (88% vs. 83%; X2=3.511, p=.040) Retirement Benefits (89% vs. 81%; X2=9.893, p=.001) Workplace Safety (60% vs. 51%; X2=8.708, p=.002) Staff Shortages (X2=2.752, p=.058) Faculty Shortages (X2=2.108, p=.087) Limitations As in any survey research, this survey measures faculty perceptions. It may not always reflect practices. Researches debate whether or not to include a neutral response in Lickert response sets (e.g., SD, Disagree, Neutral, Agree, SA). Neutral may mean: not sure, dont know, or no opinion. But, it is considered best practice to offer a neutral choice (Newman, 2007).

The response rate is on the low side, but it is respectable for this population The open-ended item Administration lacks leadership skills may be a reflection of the MBA matter that had not been resolved at the time of the survey. Because of the homogeneity of the sample, it is not appropriate to run tests of difference between non-minority men and people identifying themselves as having minority characteristics. Conclusion There are many strengths in Campus Climate at WVU that can be built on (e.g., Cohesion). Many of the Weaknesses may be addressed with Programs (e.g., trainings) or Policy Changes (Policy changes may require BOG approval and possibly the state legislature).

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