World War I U.S. NEUTRALITY IS TESTED What did we learn yesterday? 4 causes of World War I Two teams that fight against each other America gets dragged into the war With the war causing great
destruction in Europe, the US fights to remain neutral The Fight Starts August 3, 1914 Germany invaded Belgium using Schlieffen Plan Called for a holding action against Russia
Combined with a quick drive through Belgium to France Once France had fallen, the 2 German armies would combine to defeat Russia The Fight Continues With Belgium lost, the Allies retreat to the Marne River in France
The German military gets stopped in Sept. 1914 By Spring 1915, both armies had dug in for trench warfare Battles where armies fought for mere yards of ground in between two sets of trenches In between the trenches would become known as no mans land A barren expanse of mud pockmarked with shell craters and filled with barbed wire
Trench Warfare Continued for over 3 years with devastating and inconclusive results (July November 1916) Battle of Somme British suffered 60,000 casualties the first day alone Final Casualties = 1.2 million
Only to gain 7 miles America Questions Their Neutrality Socialists Criticized the war as a capitalistic and imperialist struggle between Germany and England to control markets
Pacifists Led by William Jennings Bryan Believed the war was evil and that the US should set an example of peace German and Irish Americans Favored Germany
Irish Americans hoped that if Germany won, it would provide a chance for them to gain independence from Britain The War Hits Home The majority of American favored victory for the Allies rather than the Central Powers, BUT we did not want to join the war By 1917, America begins to build its military
Mobilization occurs for two reason To ensure Allied repayment for debts to the US To prevent Germans from threatening US shipping Britain tries to Starve Germany British Blockade The use of naval ships to block off areas of water
Originally intended by Britain to blockade only the coastline of Germany Prevent weapons and other military supplies from getting to Germany Eventually, they include food as contraband Results of the British Blockade
Results were 2 fold US ships carrying goods for Germany refused to challenge the blockade Germany found it difficult to import food and fertilizers for crops Germany suffered severe famine 750,000 Germans starve to death
German U-Boat Response Germany used a counter blockade with U-Boats Submarines German orders were to sink any British or Allied ship found in the waters around Britain Germany warned US in
newspapers against traveling on British ships into a war zone President Wilson argued that it was our right to travel anywhere we want German Counterblockade Sinking of the Lusitania May 7, 1915
German U-boats sink the British liner Lusitania off the Southern coast of Ireland Of 1,198 casualties, 128 were Americans U-boats strike again August 1915 Germany agrees to restrict U-boat attacks under sharp protest from America
March 1916 Germany breaks its promise with the US Torpedoes a French passanger ship named the Sussex Kills 275 people Germany signs the Susex pledge Germany agrees to restrict U-boat attacks only if Britain lifts the blockade
against food 1916 Election November 1916 The US presidential election between Woodrow Wilson (D) Runs on He kept us out of the war slogan
Charles Hughes (R) Pledged to uphold Americas right to freedom on the high seas Wilson wins by a narrow margin Peace without Victory After election, Wilson tried to mediate between the warring alliances
(1917) In a speech to Congress, the president calls for a peace without victory a peace between equals. Idea= to have the war end without either side imposing harsh terms on the other. Germany, France, or Britain did not want this because they did not want millions of their countrymen to die in vain German Reaction January 31, 1917
Germany declares that U-boats will sink all ships in British waters on sight. Again, Wilson tried to keep the US out We will wait for actual overt acts before declaring war The Zimmerman Note was found A telegram from Germany to Mexico proposing Mexico aid Germany by attacking USA
IF the US joined the war, then Germany would support Mexico re-gain lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona Zimmerman Telegram In Russia March 1917 Revolutionaries ousted Czar Nicholas II oppressive regime
Established a provisional democratic government Now supporters of American entry into war could claim that this war was of democracies against brutal monarchies Part of the Bolshevik Revolution April 1917 Motivated by Russia, Wilson delivers a speech to Congress
America is needed to help make world safe for democracy We declare war against Central Powers on April 2, 1917
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