What is Post Keynesian Economics? - Debt deflation
Post Keynesian Economics & Modeling the Crash Steve Keen Kingston University London IDEAeconomics Minsky Open Source System Dynamic s www.debtdeflation.com/blogs What is Post Keynesian Economics? According to Diane Coyle, one of the authors of the CORE Curriculum On BBC Radio 4 Teaching Economics After the Crash [Post-Crash] has this fixation on Schools of Thought This idea that there is a monolithic Neoclassical School of Thought thats dominated economics departments and the curriculum for a long period of time, and that it needs to switch to a different School of Thought, Heterodox Economics, or at least introduce lots of different Schools of Economic Thought. I think thats going backwards. Thats going back to the economics of the 1930s and these almost Medieval Scholastic debates about what your world view was. At Manchester debate with me & George Cooper What is Post Keynesian Economics?
Were the 1930s so different to today? USA Private Debt to GDP 200 Crisis 1929 Crisis 2007 180 P ercen t o f G D P 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 www.debtdeflation.com/blogs What is Post Keynesian Economics? 1920-1940 1997-2014
25 12 Crisis 10 8 n! 20 15 10 5 0 Great 0 2 6 M o de r
4 6 at8 ion10 12 4 2 14 www.debtdeflation.com/blogs 16 18 0 20 1997-2014 P ercent of W orkforce 30 Break dow 1920-1940 P ercent of W orkforce
Why might people have debated economics in the 1930s as well as now? US Unemployment 1930s & Today What is Post Keynesian Economics? Were the causes of the two crises entirely different? Unemployment (Correlation (Correlation -0.93) -0.78) Debt Change & Unemployment Crisis 00 Crisis 16 8 12.5 14 6 12 4 10 2 5 3
1934 2009 www.debtdeflation.com/blogs www.debtdeflation.com/blogs 1936 2011 1938 2013 1940 2015 Percent (Inverted) Percent (Inverted) Percent of of G GD DPP per per year year Percent 10 18
What is Post Keynesian Economics? Does mainstream economics have a sound explanation for either crisis? there is now overwhelming evidence that the main factor depressing aggregate demand was a worldwide contraction in world money supplies. The monetary data for the United States are quite remarkable, and tend to underscore the stinging critique of the Feds policy choices by Friedman and Schwartz Let me end my talk by abusing slightly my status as an official representative of the Federal Reserve. I would like to say to Milton and Anna: Regarding the Great Depression. You're right, we did it. We're very sorry. But thanks to you, we won't do it again. ( Bernanke 2002) Whoops What is Post Keynesian Economics? Did mainstream economics dispassionately consider other theories? Bernanke before the 2007 crisis: Hyman Minsky (1977) and Charles Kindleberger (1978) have in several places argued for the inherent instability of the financial system but in doing so have had to depart from the assumption of rational economic behavior I do not deny the possible importance of irrationality in economic life; however it seems that the best
research strategy is to push the rationality postulate as far as it will go. (Bernanke 2000, Essays on the Great Depression, p. 43) Ignore alternative views because they dont fit your paradigm? CORE curriculum does the same today after the crisis What is Post Keynesian Economics? So is Post-Keynesian economics 70 or 100 year old historical ways of thinking about the economy when the economy has changed so much Or A different approach to economics inspired by a similar crisis & similar failure of mainstream economics 80 years ago? According to mainstream economists: the former In reality: the latter Many other Schools of Thought exist that CORE ignores Post Keynesian (see King 2003, 2012 for detailed history) Ecological Institutional Austrian Marxist What is Post Keynesian Economics? Part critique of Neoclassical Economics
Dates from well before Keynessee Veblen 1898 Why is Economics not an Evolutionary Science? Keynes simply break point at which PK diverged from Hicksian interpretation of Keynes (Hicks 1937 vs Keynes 1937) Part alternative approach based on realism rather than simplifying assumption fantasies Uncertainty isnt risk (Keynes 1937, Kalecki 1937) Rational Prophetic Expectations is a delusion The economy is cyclical & evolutionary (Kalecki 1968, Goodwin 1967) Economy is never in equilibrium (Hicks 1981) Evolution rather than than price competition (Schumpeter 1934) Money, banks and debt matter (Fisher 1933, Minsky 1975) Post Keynesian Economics: the critiques One example among many: Empirical critique of Neoclassical assumption of rising marginal cost (Sraffa 1926, Eiteman, Means, Lee) Neoclassical theory: rising marginal cost Fixed input (capital) in short run Vary other input (labor) while fixed input constant Marginal cost rises because of diminishing marginal productivity Neoclassical theory of production: rising marginal cost There is some ideal worker:machine
ratio (e.g., one worker per jackhammer) In short run, firm has fixed number of jackhammers ? If this sounds weird, good! Youre on to something To dig holes, firm has to hire workers 1st worker operates all six jackhammers at once: pretty inefficient! Additional workers might show increasing productivity per worker for a while (two workers operating 3 jackhammers each less messy than one operating 6, ditto three workers operating two each) Neoclassical theory of production: rising marginal cost Eventually ideal ratio reached (6 workers for 6 jackhammers) ? ? ?
Then to dig more holes, have to have more than one worker per jackhammer: ? More holes can be dug with 2 workers per jackhammer than with one But productivity of two workers per jackhammer less than one worker per jackhammer Neoclassical theory of production: rising marginal cost So productivity per worker might rise for a while; But ultimately falls as more output can only be produced by adding more variable inputs (labour) to fixed input (capital) past ideal labour:capital ratio Addition to output from each additional worker falls (but doesnt become negative) Diminishing marginal productivity (DMP) DMP leads to rising marginal cost Aggregate of firm marginal cost curves IS the market supply curve Preliminary Post Keynesian logical critique (Sraffa 1926)
Sraffas critique of supply curve Concept of diminishing marginal productivity assumes One input to production fixed in short run One input variable in short run Generates rising supply curve Supply curve must be independent of demand curve for supply & demand analysis Sraffa (1926) disputed concept of fixed factor in short run If define factor & industry broadly (e.g., capital & agriculture) then any increase in intensity of usage will drive up price of factor Change in price will affect distribution of income This will affect demandcant have independent supply & demand curves Sraffas critique of supply curve If define factor & industry narrowly (e.g., stapling gun & cardboard boxes) then amount in one industry cant be fixed Extra staplers can be acquired from other industries with little impact on price of other industries trivial impact on demand for cardboard boxes Factors stapling guns and labour thus employed at ideal ratio, & productivity constant: Not subject to diminishing marginal productivity Cardboard box output a linear function of labour input Marginal product constant so cost constant: Pric e?
Or... Dq2 Supply Dq3 Dq1 ? ? ? Price & Cost Price/ bushel Its either: Interdependent supply & demand curves: different demand curve for every point on supply curve Wheat output Sraffas critique of supply curve
Constant capitallabor ratio out to capacity Labour input with constant labour/land ratio Falling average cost Constant Marginal Cost Q1 Q2 Q3 Quantity? Agriculture Constant marginal cost so falling Wheat average cost From Fallacies to Reality Empirical critique: in numerous surveys Andrews, Bishop, Downie, Eiteman, Eiteman and Guthrie, Haines, Hall & Hitch, Lee, Means, Tucker, the Oxford Economic Research Group, (see Lee 1998 for full details) Even leading Neoclassical Alan Blinder (1998, Chapter 4) 95% of real firms report marginal revenue/cost irrelevant, foreign concepts Every extra sale adds to profit
When did a Sales Manager ever say to her sales staff: Stop selling! Weve reached the point where marginal cost equals marginal revenue! No-one ever has given that order, and no-one ever will! Cost functions as seen by managers Eiteman & Guthrie 1952 showed managers 8 hypothetical average cost curves: 3-5 neoclassical: 5 high at minimum output, decline gradually to a least-cost point near capacity, after which they rise sharply. 6 high at minimum output, decline gradually to a
least-cost point near capacity, after which they rise slightly; 7 high at minimum output, decline gradually to capacity at which point they are lowest. (Eiteman & Guthrie 1952: Cost functions as seen by managers Curve Indicated 1 Number of companies 0 2 0 3 1 4
3 5 14 6 113 7 203 8 0 Total 334 Only 18 out of 334 fitted neoclassical vision of diminishing marginal productivity, rising marginal cost Almost 2/3rds reported they had lowest unit costs at maximum output
Cost functions as seen by managers Neoclassical cost curves fits just 5% of companies & products Other 95% experience constant or falling marginal cost Dont even get to first base on MR=MC MC has to rise for MR=MC to be any guide to profit maximisation (even with modified formula) By Firms By Products Otherwise average costs above marginal cost Supports MC=MR Contradicts MC=MR Per Cent supporting MC=MR 18 316 5.4 What happened to diminishing marginal productivity? 62 1020 5.7 Modern industrial production Modern factories & absence of diminishing returns: Engineers design factories so as to cause the variable factor to be used most
efficiently when the plant is operated close to capacity. Under such conditions an average variable cost curve declines steadily until the point of capacity output is reached. A marginal cost curve derived from such an average cost curve lies below the average cost curve at all scales of operation short of capacity, a fact that makes it physically impossible for an enterprise to determine a scale of operations by equating marginal cost and marginal revenues. (Eiteman 1947) Modern industrial production As some of Eitemans survey respondents put it: The amazing thing is that any sane economist could consider No. 3, No. 4 and No. 5 as representing business thinking. It looks as if some economists, assuming a premise that business is not progressive, are trying to prove the premise by suggesting curves like Nos. 3, 4 & 5. Even with the low efficiency and premium pay of overtime work, our unit costs would still decline with increased production since the absorption of fixed expenses would more than offset the added direct expenses incurred. Many more critiques than this Indicative of Neoclassical simplifying assumptions contradicting reality Post Keynesian economists insist on realism rather than fantasy
Post Keynesian Economics: the alternatives Many alternatives strands within broad Post Keynesian school Sraffian economics (derived from Sraffa 1960) Input-output focus (Steedman) Kaleckian economics Cyclical growth focus Stock-Flow Consistent Approach (SCFA) Strict accounting for monetary stocks & flows (Godley, Lavoie) Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) Capacity for fiat money creation to overcome recessions Minskian economics Monetary explanation for dynamic instability & crises My approach just one of many Attempting to blend all above, and to incorporate Energy/entropy/ecology analysis (Ayres) Macroeconomics with banks, debt & money Neoclassical mainstream ignores banks in macroeconomics In particular, he [Keen] asserts that putting banks in the story is essential. Now, I'm all for including the banking sector in stories
where it's relevant; but why is it so crucial to a story about debt and leverage? Keen says that it's because once you include banks, lending increases the money supply. OK, but why does that matter? He seems to assume that aggregate demand can't increase unless the money supply rises, but that's only true if the velocity of money is fixed; so have we suddenly become strict monetarists while I wasn't looking? In the kind of model Gauti and I use, lending very much can and does increase aggregate demand, so what is the problem? (Krugman March 2012) Macroeconomics with banks, debt & money Eggertsson-Krugman appendix has model with a bank! Almost unheard of in mainstream economics: Model has lending between patient & impatient agents Bank acts as intermediary: Facilitates loan, charges intermediation fee Replicated in Minsky Other New Keynesian elements deliberately not modelled Hybrid worker-capitalists so wage-profit distribution ignored Endowed with Prophetic Expectations instead Both Patient & Impatient are capitalists
Patient produces consumption good (as in E-K model) Impatient borrows & produces investment good (as in E-K) The conventional veil over barter vision of money Using Minsky to model Krugmans conventional vision of lending: Patient people lend to impatient people Banks just intermediate between the two groups Therefore lending doesnt change demand Keen then goes on to assert that lending is, by definition (at least as I understand it), an addition to aggregate demand. I guess I dont get that at all. If I decide to cut back on my spending and stash the funds in a bank, which lends them out to someone else, this doesn't have to represent a net increase in demand. Yes, in some (many) cases lending is associated with higher demand, because resources are being transferred to people with a higher propensity to spend; but Keen seems to be saying something else, and I'm not sure what. The conventional veil over barter vision of money Using Minsky to model Krugmans conventional vision of
lending: Patient people lend to impatient people Banks just intermediate between the two groups Therefore lending doesnt change demand Keen then goes on to assert that lending is, by definition (at least as I understand it), an addition to aggregate demand. I guess I dont get that at all. If I decide to cut back on my spending and stash the funds in a bank, which lends them out to someone else, this doesn't have to represent a net increase in demand. Yes, in some (many) cases lending is associated with higher demand, because resources are being transferred to people with a higher propensity to spend; but Keen seems to be saying something else, and I'm not sure what. The conventional veil over barter vision of money Modeling patient lends to impatient in Minsky Lending from one deposit account (Patient) to another (Impatient) Shown as Crediting Patient &
Debiting Impatient because Deposits are Click here to liabilities of download bank latest version Can also use + of Minsky and (which I prefer) The conventional veil over barter vision of money Full model: Bank arranges loan from Consumer sector (Patient) to investment (Impatient) sector & charges intermediation fee Bank Balance Assets Workers hired, output produced &Liabilities sold, investmentEquity Sheet Flows\Stocks
Reserves ID CD WD BE Initial Conditions 100 -20 -60 -15 -5 Lending -Lend Lend Debt Repayment Repay -Repay Interest Payments int -int Bank Fee Fee -Fee Hire Workers (C) WC -WC Hire Workers (I) WI -WI Purchases (I) IC
-IC Purchases (C) -CI CI Workers -CW CW Consumption Debt doesnt appear here: Asset of Consumer Bankers -CB SectorCB The conventional veil over barter vision of money Consumer Sector Godley Table Assets Equity CNW -70 Flows\Stocks D CD Initial Conditions 60 10
Lending -Lend Lend Debt Repayment Repay -Repay Interest Payments int -int Bank Fee -Fee Fee Hire Workers (C) -WC WC Bankers Consumption CB -CB Purchases (I) CI -CI Workers Consumption CW -CW Purchases (C) -IC IC Lending reduces Consumer Sectors Asset of Cash at the Bank Increases Consumer Sectors Asset of Loan to Investment
Consumer Sector Sectors does without Cash for duration of Loan The conventional Loanable Funds vision of money Simulated, Krugman/Bernanke correct: debt doesnt matter LoanableFunds.mky Eggertsson-Krugman bank model in Minsky But what if banks lend money, rather than patient agents? Modify Minsky to model bank lending Model currently shows Loans as asset of patient Consumer Agent Lets make it an Asset of the Bank instead Varying lending & repayment in Endogenous Money Changing debt matters: change in money supply causes change in GDP EndogenousMoney.mky
Basic economic modelling: Goodwins growth cycle In 1967, Richard Goodwin put this in mathematical form. Goodwins simple cyclical growth model lfn l lS l l0 Capital determines output K Y L v Y l Output determines employment L N a d lfn wages wr wr Employment rate determines rate of change of dt Wages determine Profitswr L W Y W Profits determine Investment I dK Investment is the rate of change of Capital I K d K dt Generates cyclical growth
Building this in Minsky Using parameter values: v=3 a=1 ls = 10 l0 = 0.9 Initial conditions K(0) = 300 wr(0)=0.8 Add plots to illustrate Basic economic modelling: Goodwins growth cycle Generates a cyclical model GoodwinBasic01.mky Basic economic modelling: Goodwins growth cycle Now add realism Capitalists dont invest all their profits More during boom Less during slump Use linear investment function: pr
YW K K I fn p r p E p S Rate of profit Investment function Ignoring (for now) where capitalists get funds > profit where they store surplus when investment < profit Using parameter values pE = 0.03 pS = 10 Extending Goodwin: adding debt GoodwinInvestmentFunction.mky Generates same basic outcome: sustained nonlinear cycles Now more realism: Capitalists borrow from banks when desired investment exceeds profits Banks charge
interest on outstanding debt Adds Y W r D p n p r n these K K v equations: dD I n dt Using parameter value rL = 0.05 Adding graph for D/ Extending Goodwin: adding debt GoodwinWithDebt.mky Generates complex system All without nonlinear functions or 3rd dimension introduces
possibility of complex behaviour Actual dynamics bear qualitative similarity to recent economic history Period of apparent declining by rising Followed volatility volatility and breakdown With rising private debt to GDP ratio And declining workers share of output (rising Extending Goodwin: adding government Government subsidies to firms (GS) a function of employment rate: 1d GS fg l Y dt Net profit now includes government subsidy pr
n Y W r D GS p n K K v Replacing unrealistic linear functions with more realistic nonlinear ones Generalized exponential function with parameters minimum, x-y coordinate & slope (x,y) point: se at WageFn ye mine exp 0 xe mine ye mine si InvFn yi mini exp Profit Rate xi min i yi mini sg GFn yg ming exp 0 xg
ming y min g g Extending Goodwin: adding government MinskyFIHwithGovernment.mky Resolute counter-cyclical government behaviour prevents More stable breakdown, but cycles remain than actual economy because actual governments have tolerated rising unemployme nt since 1970s Conclusion Much more to Post Keynesian economics than Ive shown
here Consult King (2012) for a complete survey Many other Schools of ThoughtAustrian, Evolutionary, Ecological, Feminist, Marxist, Institutional, Econophysics Given failure of Neoclassical paradigm, pluralism should rule Teach all current approaches For Attempt evolve new realistic paradigmin over time a to pluralist education And if your University doesnt teach alternative economics approaches, then Come to Kingston Kingston University School of Economics, History & London
References: small selection of Post Keynesian papers Ayres, R. U. (1978). Application of physical principles to economics. Resources, environment, and economics: applications of the materials/energy balance principle. R. U. Ayers: Chapter 3. Ayres, R. U. (1995). "Thermodynamics and Process Analysis for Future Economic Scenarios." Environmental and Resource Economics 6(3): 207230. Ayres, R. U. (1999). "The Second Law, the Fourth Law, Recycling and Limits to Growth." Ecological Economics 29(3): 473-483. Bernanke, B. S. (2002). Remarks by Governor Ben S. Bernanke At the Conference to Honor Milton Friedman. Conference to Honor Milton Friedman. University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. NOT a Post-Keynesian! Blinder, A. S. (1998). Asking about prices: a new approach to understanding price stickiness. New York, Russell Sage Foundation. NOT a Post-Keynesian, but his survey work on cost functions contradicted Neoclassical theory Eiteman, W. J. (1945). "The Equilibrium of the Firm in Multi-Process Industries." THE QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS 59(2): 280-286.
Eiteman, W. J. (1947). "Factors Determining the Location of the Least Cost Point." The American Economic Review 37(5): 910-918. References: small selection of Post Keynesian papers Eiteman, W. J. (1948). "The Least Cost Point, Capacity, and Marginal Analysis: A Rejoinder." The American Economic Review 38(5): 899-904. Eiteman, W. J. (1953). "The Shape of the Average Cost Curve: Rejoinder." The American Economic Review 43(4): 628-630. Eiteman, W. J. and G. E. Guthrie (1952). "The Shape of the Average Cost Curve." The American Economic Review 42(5): 832-838. Fisher, I. (1932). Booms and Depressions: Some First Principles. New York, Adelphi. Fisher, I. (1933). "The Debt-Deflation Theory of Great Depressions." Econometrica 1(4): 337-357. Godley, W. (1992). "Maastricht and All That." London Review of Books 14(19): 3-4.
Godley, W. (1999). "Money and Credit in a Keynesian Model of Income Determination." Cambridge Journal of Economics 23(4): 393-411. Godley, W. (2001). "The Developing Recession in the United States." Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review 54(219): 417-425. Godley, W. (2004). "Money and Credit in a Keynesian Model of Income Determination: Corrigenda." Cambridge Journal of Economics 28(3): 469469. Godley, W. and A. Izurieta (2002). "The Case for a Severe Recession." Challenge 45(2): 27-51. References: small selection of Post Keynesian papers Godley, W. and M. Lavoie (2005). "Comprehensive Accounting in Simple Open Economy Macroeconomics with Endogenous Sterilization or Flexible Exchange Rates." Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 28(2): 241-276. Godley, W. and M. Lavoie (2007). "Fiscal Policy in a Stock-Flow Consistent
(SFC) Model." Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 30(1): 79-100. Godley, W. and M. Lavoie (2007). Monetary Economics: An Integrated Approach to Credit, Money, Income, Production and Wealth. New York, Palgrave Macmillan. Goodwin, R. (1946). "Innovations and the Irregularity of Economic Cycles." The Review of Economics and Statistics 28(2): 95-104. Goodwin, R. M. (1967). A growth cycle. Socialism, Capitalism and Economic Growth. C. H. Feinstein. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 54-58. Goodwin, R. M. (1985). "A Personal Perspective on Mathematical Economics." Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review(152): 3-13. Goodwin, R. M. (1986). "The Economy as an Evolutionary Pulsator." Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 7(4): 341-349. Goodwin, R. M. (1986). "Swinging along the Turnpike with von Neumann and Sraffa." Cambridge Journal of Economics 10(3): 203-210. Goodwin, R. M. (1990). Chaotic economic dynamics. Oxford, Oxford
References: small selection of Post Keynesian papers Goodwin, R. M. (1991). "New Results in Non-linear Economic Dynamics." Economic Systems Research 3(4): 426-427. Goodwin, R. M. (1993). Schumpeter and Keynes. Market and institutions in economic development: Essays in honour of Paolo Sylos Labini. S. Biasco, A. Roncaglia and M. Salvati. New York, St. Martin's Press: 83-85. Goodwin, R. M. (1996). Structural Change and Macroeconomic Stability in Disaggregated Models. Production and economic dynamics. M. Landesmann and R. Scazzieri. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 167-187. Goodwin, R. M., R. H. Day and P. Chen (1993). A Marx-KeynesSchumpeter Model of Economic Growth and Fluctuation. Nonlinear dynamics and evolutionary economics. Oxford, Oxford University Press: 45-57. Goodwin, R. M., G. Gandolfo and F. Marzano (1987). The Nonlinear Theory of the Cycle Revisited. Keynesian theory, planning models and quantitative economics: Essays in memory of Vittorio Marrama. Volume 1, Universita degli Studi di Roma 'La Sapienza' series, no. 44, 1 Goodwin, R. M., G. M. Hodgson and E. Screpanti (1991). Economic Evolution, Chaotic Dynamics and the Marx-Keynes-Schumpeter System. Rethinking economics: Markets, technology and economic evolution, Aldershot, U.K.
References: small selection of Post Keynesian papers Hicks, J. (1979). "On Coddington's Interpretation: A Reply." Journal of Economic Literature 17(3): 989-995. Hicks, J. (1981). "IS-LM: An Explanation." Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 3(2): 139-154. Hicks, J. (1984). "The 'New Causality': An Explanation." Oxford Economic Papers 36(1): 12-15. Kalecki, M. (1937). "The Principle of Increasing Risk." Economica 4(16): 440-447. Kalecki, M. (1937). "A Theory of the Business Cycle." The Review of Economic Studies 4(2): 77-97. Kalecki, M. (1938). "The Determinants of Distribution of the National Income." Econometrica 6(2): 97-112. Kalecki, M. (1942). "A Theory of Profits." The Economic Journal 52 (206/207): 258-267. Kalecki, M. (1946). "A Comment on "Monetary Policy"." The Review of Economics and Statistics 28(2): 81-84. Kalecki, M. (1949). "A New Approach to the Problem of Business Cycles." The Review of Economic Studies 16(2): 57-64. Kalecki, M. (1962). "Observations on the Theory of Growth." The Economic Journal 72(285): 134-153. Kalecki, M. (1968). "Trend and Business Cycles Reconsidered." The
References: small selection of Post Keynesian papers Kalecki, M. (1971). "Class Struggle and the Distribution of National Income." Kyklos 24(1): 1-9. Keynes, J. M. (1937). "The General Theory of Employment." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 51(2): 209-223. Keen, S. (1995). "Finance and Economic Breakdown: Modeling Minsky's 'Financial Instability Hypothesis.'." Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 17(4): 607-635. Keen, S. and R. Standish (2010). "Debunking the theory of the firma chronology." Real World Economics Review 54(54): 56-94. Keen, S. (2013). "A monetary Minsky model of the Great Moderation and the Great Recession." Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 86(0): 221-235. King, J. E. (2003). A History Of Post Keynesian Economics Since 1936.
Aldershot, Edward Elgar. King, J. E., Ed. (2012). The Elgar Companion To Post Keynesian Economics. Aldershot, Edward Elgar. Kmmel, R., R. U. Ayres and D. Lindenberger (2010). "Thermodynamic laws, economic methods and the productive power of energy." Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics 35: 145-179. Lavoie, M. (2008). "Financialisation Issues in a Post-Keynesian Stock-Flow Consistent Model." Intervention: European Journal of Economics and References: small selection of Post Keynesian papers Lee, F. S. (1981). "The Oxford Challenge to Marshallian Supply and Demand: The History of the Oxford Economists' Research Group." Oxford Economic Papers 33(3): 339-351. Lee, F. S. (1998). Post Keynesian price theory. Cambridge, Cambridge
University Press. Lee, F. S. (2011). "Modeling the Economy as a Whole: An Integrative Approach." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 70(5): 12821314. Lee, F. S. and P. Downward (1999). "Retesting Gardiner Means's Evidence on Administered Prices." Journal of Economic Issues 33(4): 861-886. Lee, F. S. and S. Keen (2004). "The Incoherent Emperor: A Heterodox Critique of Neoclassical Microeconomic Theory." Review of Social Economy 62(2): 169-199. Means, G. C. (1935). "Price Inflexibility and the Requirements of a Stabilizing Monetary Policy." Journal of the American Statistical Association 30(190): 401-413. Means, G. C. (1936). "Notes on Inflexible Prices." The American Economic Review 26(1): 23-35. Means, G. C. (1972). "The Administered-Price Thesis Reconfirmed." The American Economic Review 62(3): 292-306. Minsky, H. P. (1975). John Maynard Keynes. New York, Columbia
References: small selection of Post Keynesian papers Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). The theory of economic development : an inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest and the business cycle. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press. Schumpeter, J. A. (1935). "The Analysis of Economic Change." The Review of Economics and Statistics 17(4): 2-10. Sraffa, P. (1960). Production of commodities by means of commodities: prelude to a critique of economic theory. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Steedman, I. (1977). Marx after Sraffa. London, NLB. Steedman, I. (1992). "Questions for Kaleckians." Review of Political Economy 4(2): 125-151. Veblen, T. (1898). "Why is Economics not an Evolutionary Science?" THE QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS 12(4): 373-397. Wray, L. R. (2003). "The Perfect Fiscal Storm." Challenge 46(1): 55-78. Wray, L. R. (2007). "A Post Keynesian View of Central Bank Independence, Policy Targets, and the Rules versus Discretion Debate." Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 30(1): 119-141. Wray, L. R. (2011). "Minsky's Money Manager Capitalism and the Global Financial Crisis." International Journal of Political Economy 40(2): 5-20.
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