video slide - scott.k12.ky.us

video slide - scott.k12.ky.us

Chapter 32 An Introduction to Animal Diversity PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Overview: Welcome to Your Kingdom

The animal kingdom extends far beyond humans and other animals we may encounter 1.3 million living species of animals have been identified Video: Coral Reef Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 32-1 Concept 32.1: Animal are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers

There are exceptions to nearly every criterion for distinguishing animals from other life-forms Several characteristics, taken together, sufficiently define the group Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Nutritional Mode Animals are heterotrophs that ingest their food Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Cell Structure and Specialization

Animals are multicellular eukaryotes Their cells lack cell walls Their bodies are held together by structural proteins such as collagen Nervous tissue and muscle tissue are unique to animals Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Reproduction and Development Most animals reproduce sexually, with the diploid stage usually dominating the life cycle After a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote

undergoes rapid cell division called cleavage Cleavage leads to formation of a blastula The blastula undergoes gastrulation, forming a gastrula with different layers of embryonic tissues Video: Sea Urchin Embryonic Development Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 32-2-1 Cleavage Zygote

Eight-cell stage Fig. 32-2-2 Cleavage Zygote Cleavage Blastula Eight-cell stage Blastocoel

Cross section of blastula Fig. 32-2-3 Blastocoel Cleavage Endoderm Cleavage Blastula Ectoderm

Zygote Eight-cell stage Gastrulation Blastocoel Cross section of blastula Gastrula Blastopore Archenteron

Many animals have at least one larval stage A larva is sexually immature and morphologically distinct from the adult; it eventually undergoes metamorphosis Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings All animals, and only animals, have Hox genes that regulate the development of body form Although the Hox family of genes has been highly conserved, it can produce a wide diversity of animal morphology

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Concept 32.2: The history of animals spans more than half a billion years The animal kingdom includes a great diversity of living species and an even greater diversity of extinct ones The common ancestor of living animals may have lived between 675 and 875 million years ago This ancestor may have resembled modern choanoflagellates, protists that are the closest

living relatives of animals Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 32-3 Individual choanoflagellate Choanoflagellates OTHER EUKARYOTES Sponges

Animals Collar cell (choanocyte) Other animals Neoproterozoic Era (1 Billion524 Million Years Ago) Early members of the animal fossil record include the Ediacaran biota, which dates from 565 to 550 million years ago

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 32-4 1.5 cm (a) Mawsonites spriggi 0.4 cm (b) Spriggina floundersi Fig. 32-4a

1.5 cm (a) Mawsonites spriggi Fig. 32-4b 0.4 cm (b) Spriggina floundersi Paleozoic Era (542251 Million Years Ago) The Cambrian explosion (535 to 525 million

years ago) marks the earliest fossil appearance of many major groups of living animals There are several hypotheses regarding the cause of the Cambrian explosion New predator-prey relationships A rise in atmospheric oxygen The evolution of the Hox gene complex Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 32-5 Animal diversity continued to increase through the Paleozoic, but was punctuated by mass

extinctions Animals began to make an impact on land by 460 million years ago Vertebrates made the transition to land around 360 million years ago Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Mesozoic Era (25165.5 Million Years Ago) Coral reefs emerged, becoming important marine ecological niches for other organisms During the Mesozoic era, dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates

The first mammals emerged Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Cenozoic Era (65.5 Million Years Ago to the Present) The beginning of the Cenozoic era followed mass extinctions of both terrestrial and marine animals These extinctions included the large, nonflying dinosaurs and the marine reptiles Modern mammal orders and insects diversified during the Cenozoic

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Concept 32.3: Animals can be characterized by body plans Zoologists sometimes categorize animals according to a body plan, a set of morphological and developmental traits A grade is a group whose members share key biological features A grade is not necessarily a clade, or monophyletic group

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 32-6 100 m RESULTS Site of gastrulation Site of gastrulation

Fig. 32-6a 100 m RESULTS Fig. 32-6b RESULTS Site of gastrulation

Fig. 32-6c RESULTS Site of gastrulation Fig. 32-6d RESULTS Symmetry

Animals can be categorized according to the symmetry of their bodies, or lack of it Some animals have radial symmetry Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 32-7 (a) Radial symmetry (b) Bilateral symmetry Two-sided symmetry is called bilateral

symmetry Bilaterally symmetrical animals have: A dorsal (top) side and a ventral (bottom) side A right and left side Anterior (head) and posterior (tail) ends Cephalization, the development of a head Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Tissues Animal body plans also vary according to the organization of the animals tissues Tissues are collections of specialized cells isolated from other tissues by membranous

layers During development, three germ layers give rise to the tissues and organs of the animal embryo Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Ectoderm is the germ layer covering the embryos surface Endoderm is the innermost germ layer and lines the developing digestive tube, called the archenteron Diploblastic animals have ectoderm and

endoderm Triploblastic animals also have an intervening mesoderm layer; these include all bilaterians Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Body Cavities Most triploblastic animals possess a body cavity A true body cavity is called a coelom and is derived from mesoderm Coelomates are animals that possess a true coelom

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 32-8 Coelom Digestive tract (from endoderm) Body covering (from ectoderm) Tissue layer lining coelom

and suspending internal organs (from mesoderm) (a) Coelomate Body covering (from ectoderm) Pseudocoelom Muscle layer (from mesoderm)

Digestive tract (from endoderm) (b) Pseudocoelomate Body covering (from ectoderm) Tissuefilled region (from mesoderm) Wall of digestive cavity (from endoderm)

(c) Acoelomate Fig. 32-8a Coelom Digestive tract (from endoderm) (a) Coelomate Body covering (from ectoderm) Tissue layer

lining coelom and suspending internal organs (from mesoderm) A pseudocoelom is a body cavity derived from the mesoderm and endoderm Triploblastic animals that possess a pseudocoelom are called pseudocoelomates Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 32-8b

Body covering (from ectoderm) Pseudocoelom Digestive tract (from endoderm) (b) Pseudocoelomate Muscle layer (from mesoderm) Triploblastic animals that lack a body cavity are

called acoelomates Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 32-8c Body covering (from ectoderm) Tissuefilled region (from mesoderm)

Wall of digestive cavity (from endoderm) (c) Acoelomate Protostome and Deuterostome Development Based on early development, many animals can be categorized as having protostome development or deuterostome development Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Cleavage In protostome development, cleavage is spiral

and determinate In deuterostome development, cleavage is radial and indeterminate With indeterminate cleavage, each cell in the early stages of cleavage retains the capacity to develop into a complete embryo Indeterminate cleavage makes possible identical twins, and embryonic stem cells Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 32-9 Protostome development

(examples: molluscs, annelids) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderm, chordates) Eight-cell stage Eight-cell stage Spiral and determinate Key

Radial and indeterminate (b) Coelom formation Coelom Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm (a) Cleavage Archenteron

Coelom Mesoderm Blastopore Blastopore Mesoderm Folds of archenteron form coelom. Solid masses of mesoderm

split and form coelom. Anus Mouth (c) Fate of the blastopore Digestive tube Mouth Mouth develops from blastopore. Anus

Anus develops from blastopore. Fig. 32-9a Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annelids) Eight-cell stage Spiral and determinate Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms,

chordates) Eight-cell stage Radial and indeterminate (a) Cleavage Coelom Formation In protostome development, the splitting of solid masses of mesoderm forms the coelom In deuterostome development, the mesoderm buds from the wall of the archenteron to form the coelom

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 32-9b Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annelids) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates) (b) Coelom formation

Coelom Key Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Archenteron Coelom Mesoderm Blastopore

Solid masses of mesoderm split and form coelom. Blastopore Mesoderm Folds of archenteron form coelom. Fate of the Blastopore The blastopore forms during gastrulation and

connects the archenteron to the exterior of the gastrula In protostome development, the blastopore becomes the mouth In deuterostome development, the blastopore becomes the anus Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 32-9c Protostome development (examples: molluscs,

annelids) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates) Anus Mouth (c) Fate of the blastopore Key

Digestive tube Anus Mouth Mouth develops from blastopore. Anus develops from blastopore. Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Concept 32.4: New views of animal phylogeny are emerging from molecular data Zoologists recognize about three dozen animal

phyla Current debate in animal systematics has led to the development of two phylogenetic hypotheses, but others exist as well Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings One hypothesis of animal phylogeny is based mainly on morphological and developmental comparisons Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Fig. 32-10 Porifera Eumetazoa Metazoa ANCESTRAL COLONIAL FLAGELLATE Cnidaria

Ctenophora Deuterostomia Ectoprocta Brachiopoda Echinodermata Bilateria Chordata Platyhelminthes

Protostomia Rotifera Mollusca Annelida Arthropoda Nematoda One hypothesis of animal phylogeny is based mainly on molecular data Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Metazoa Silicea Calcarea Ctenophora Eumetazoa ANCESTRAL COLONIAL FLAGELLATE Porifera

Fig. 32-11 Cnidaria Acoela Bilateria Deuterostomia Echinodermata Chordata Platyhelminthes

Lophotrochozoa Rotifera Ectoprocta Brachiopoda Mollusca Annelida Ecdysozoa Nematoda Arthropoda

Points of Agreement All animals share a common ancestor Sponges are basal animals Eumetazoa is a clade of animals (eumetazoans) with true tissues Most animal phyla belong to the clade Bilateria, and are called bilaterians Chordates and some other phyla belong to the clade Deuterostomia Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Progress in Resolving Bilaterian Relationships

The morphology-based tree divides bilaterians into two clades: deuterostomes and protostomes In contrast, recent molecular studies indicate three bilaterian clades: Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa, and Lophotrochozoa Ecdysozoans shed their exoskeletons through a process called ecdysis Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 32-12

Some lophotrochozoans have a feeding structure called a lophophore Other phyla go through a distinct developmental stage called the trochophore larva Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 32-13 Lophophore Apical tuft of cilia

100 m Mouth (a) An ectoproct Anus (b) Structure of a trochophore larva Future Directions in Animal Systematics Phylogenetic studies based on larger

databases will likely provide further insights into animal evolutionary history Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 32-UN1 Common ancestor of all animals Metazoa Sponges (basal animals)

Eumetazoa Ctenophora Cnidaria Acoela (basal bilaterians) Deuterostomia Bilateral summetry Three germ layers Lophotrochozoa

Ecdysozoa Bilateria (most animals) True tissues Fig. 32-T1 Fig. 32-UN2 You should now be able to: 1. List the characteristics that combine to define

animals 2. Summarize key events of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras 3. Distinguish between the following pairs or sets of terms: radial and bilateral symmetry; grade and clade of animal taxa; diploblastic and triploblastic; spiral and radial cleavage; determinate and indeterminate cleavage; acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, and coelomate grades Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings 4. Compare the developmental differences

between protostomes and deuterostomes 5. Compare the alternate relationships of annelids and arthropods presented by two different proposed phylogenetic trees 6. Distinguish between ecdysozoans and lophotrochozoans Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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