Unit 5: Animals - Sponges, Cnidarians, & Worms

Unit 5: Animals - Sponges, Cnidarians, & Worms

Invertebrates Part 1 Animal Characteristics Sponges & Cnidarians (Section 24.3) Biology 102B Characteristics of Animals 1. Multicellular, eukaryotes 2. Heterotrophs 3. Cells w/out cell walls, many have specialized functions 4. Usually have a method of movement

5. Most reproduce sexually 6. Require oxygen Describe the Body Plans of Animals 1. Symmetry: balance in body proportions a. Asymmetrical:have irregularly shaped bodies, no symmetry b. Radial symmetry: can be divided along any plane to produce 2 halves which look alike

c. Bilateral: can be divided only one way to Symmetry Radial produce mirror image Bilateral halves Posterior end Dorsal Ventral Planes of

symmetry Anterior end Planes of Symmetr y 2. Body arrangements: a. anterior: head region b. posterior: tail region c. dorsal: back or top

d. ventral: abdomen or bottom Sponges: Phylum Porifera (pore bearer) Simplest of all animals Assymetrical animals that live in shallow waters Sessile filter-feeders whose bodies have many pores Obtain oxygen by filtering water

No nervous system or organ system Sponge Reproduction Reproduce Asexually: Fragments break off and grow into new individuals, can grow back missing parts (regeneration) Buds form from sides of parent sponge Reproduce sexually:

Hermaphrodites: produce both eggs and sperm Gametes are released into water (external fertilization) Sponge Body Structures Osculum: large opening at the top of the sponge Pore cells: openings to bring in water Collar cells (choanocytes): line interior, have flagella to help filter water Spicules:

hard, supportive structures found in body of sponge Figure 268 The Anatomy of a Sponge Section 26-2 Osculum Central cavity Pores

Water flow Choanocyte Spicule Pore cell Pore Epidermal cell Archaeocyte Cnidarians Phylum Cnidaria: stinging cell

Marine animals with radial symmetry Have tentacles Predators: capture and poison prey with stinging cells on tentacles called NEMATOCYSTS Oxygen diffuses into body from water Cnidarian Reproduction Asexually reproduce by

budding Sexually reproduce in medusa form only, sperm and eggs are released into water Thousands of gametes are released at a time In the box on your notes answer the following: Explain why sponges and

cnidarians release so many gametes into the water Cnidarians: Body Forms Polyp: body with tentacles hanging upward Ex: hydra, sea anemone Medusa: body with

tentacles hanging downward Ex: jellyfish Structures: One body opening (mouth) for food to enter and wastes to exit Gastrovascular cavity: interior cavity where food is digested & nutrients are circulated around the body

Label the hydra on your notes! Nerve net: net of nerves that allow impulses to travel around the body, senses the environment

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