Unit 2 Study Guide Review Question 1: what are three examples of abiotic factors that can be found in an ecosystem? Rain, wind and sunlight are abiotic factors that can be found in an ecosystem. Abiotic factors are nonliving component that affects living organisms in an ecosystem Question 2: What are biotic factors and how are they dependent on the abiotic factors of an
ecosystem? Biotic factors are living things, such as animals or plants, in an ecosystem. Biotic factors are extremely dependent on abiotic factors for food, growth, and many other requirements needed to survive. Question 3: If we change abiotic factors, how are biotic factors affected? Give at least 2 examples Example: If the amount of rain (abiotic) changes then it will change the growth of the plant (biotic factor). Example:If the amount of sunlight (abiotic) changes then it will affect the amount of
growth the plant has. Example:If the amount of precipitation were to drop the plants would have to adapt and be able to cope with the less amount of water. The plant would then need to become able to store water like a cactus. Question 4: What happens to population size and energy available as you move from producers to tertiary consumers in an energy pyramid diagram? In an energy pyramid, as you move from producers to tertiary consumers, the amount of energy given decreases by 10%. This is called the 10% rule. In the 10%
rule, the primary consumer eats the producer but only gets 10% of its energy. So when the secondary consumer eats the primary consumer it only get 10% of their energy which isn't much because the primary consumer only got 10% of the producer. Then the tertiary consumer only gets 10% of the secondary consumers energy, which also isn't much because it only got 10% of the primary consumer. Question 5: Define and give two examples of a) producer b) consumer c) herbivore d) carnivore e) omnivore f) decomposer Producers - organisms that create or produce energy through the process of
photosynthesis - grass, trees Consumers - consumes other plants and/or animals for energy - humans, animals Herbivores - organisms that eat plant for energy - wildebeest, bunnies Omnivore - consumers that eat both plants and other organisms - black bears, deer Decomposers - an organism that breaks down other dead organisms, to make nutrients for the ecosystem they are in - worm, flies, fungi Question 6: What are primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers? Give examples and state
whether each is an herbivore, carnivore, or omnivore. Primary Consumers are the herbivores, they only eat plants. The secondary consumers and tertiary consumers can either be an omnivore or a carnivore, Secondary consumers eat primary consumers and tertiary consumers eat secondary consumers. An example of a primary consumer would be a deer, they are herbivores. A coyote would be a secondary consumer eating the primary, a coyote is a carnivore because they do not feast on plants, rather other animals. An example for a tertiary consumer would be a black bear, the black would be an omnivore eating both plants and animals.
Question 7: What is the difference between a habitat, community, and ecosystem? A habitat is a natural home or environment. A community is a group of different species living together. An ecosystem is made up of multiple communities with biotic and abiotic factors. Question 8: Describe each of the following biomes based on their abiotic and biotic factors.
rain forest- The rain forest has a year-round hot climate. Animals that live there include toucans, gorilas, and cassowaries. desert- The desert has a year-round hot climate. It only rains one inch a year, and has animals such as snakes and camels. deciduous forest- The deciduous forest changes seasons during different times of the month. Animals that live in this type of forest include squirrels and racoons. coniferous forest- This biome has warm summers and cool winters. Animals that live her include bears and foxes. arctic- The arctic biome is the coldest biome out of all. Animals include polar bears and snowy owl. ocean/marine- Animals that live in this biome include blue whales, swrod fish, and clown fish. The climate
can go from -40 degrees to over 100 degrees Question 9: What colors of light are absorbed by chlorophyll? What colors of light are reflected by chlorophyll. How can blocking the sun lead to extinction of life on earth? Green light is reflected by chlorophyll , while all other colors are absorbed. If the sun was blocked out, all plants would die. Without sunlight, plants cannot perform photosynthesis, a vital life functions. Without plants, all herbivores would die herbivores (primary consumers) would die. As a result of that, many carnivores
would die, and so on, until the whole food web collapses and all species will become extinct on Earth. Question 10: How can we explain the flow of energy through an ecosystem by discussing photosynthesis and cell respiration as reverse processes? Must mention these vocab words in response: Nuclear energy, electromagnetic energy, chemical energy, mechanical energy, heat energy, photosynthesis, cell respiration, endothermic (energy storing), exothermic (energy releasing) Nuclear fusion from the sun produces nuclear energy which turns into electromagnetic
energy in the form of sunlight.Then producers or plants use the sunlight for photosynthesis. In this process, electromagnetic energy is converted into chemical energy. That reaction is endothermic or energy storing (sunlight energy gets stored into the food/sugars/glucose/carbohydrates that the plant produces). When a primary consumer consumes a producer, the energy is passed from the producer to the consumer.The consumer uses this chemical energy to do daily activities. The conversion of chemical energy (food) into mechanical energy (movement) is accomplished by cellular respiration. This is an energy releasing (exothermic) reaction. As a result, heat energy that is produced is released into the atmosphere
Question 11: Why are food webs more realistic than food chains for explaining the feeding relationships in ecosystems? A food chain is just one chain of organisms eating each other. A food web is composed of multiple food chains. A food web also shows organisms eating many organism rather than just a straight chain. One animal will eat multiple other things than just one animal. That is why a food web is more realistic than a food chain. Question 12: Give an example of each type of symbiotic relationship and describe which benefits,
is harmed, or is unaffected in each situation Mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism only, no ammensalism on test Mutualism- Fungi and algae work together to build communities called lichens. Fungi and Algae are both benefits. Commensalism-Some of the plants in freshwater give fishes protection for their prey. Fish are benefits and the plants are unaffected Parasitism: Two examples like Fish and ICH. ICH is a disease that makes the fish sick then cause it to die. The fish is harmed while the disease feeds off of it Final reminders
Dont forget to review the skills required on page 1 of your study guide Test format: 6 multiple choice 12 matching 3 short response 2 open ended Paper test (no computer needed)
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