Unit 00 AP Chemistry Preamble

Unit 00 AP Chemistry Preamble

Unit 05 Nomenclature Nomenclature Nomenclature is the system used for naming substances Names are important Symbols Each element has a symbol displayed on the periodic table. Some elements have a symbol that is a single letter while others have a symbol made up of two letters. It is important when writing the two letter symbols to ensure that you use a lower case letter for the send letter This may sound trivial but is very important, for example, Co (cobalt), a metal element, is not the same as CO (carbon monoxide), a gaseous compound made from carbon (C) and oxygen (O). Binary compounds of metals and non-metals (ionic compounds) Binary compounds are those formed between only two elements. In compounds where one is a metal one a non-metal an ionic compound is formed. An ion is a charged particle and ionic formulae and names can be determined by considering the charge on the ions. To find the formula of an ionic compound the positive and negative charges must be balanced, i.e., there must be no net charge To name a binary compound of a metal and non-metal, the unmodified name of the positive ion is written first followed by the root of the negative ions with the ending modified to ide. Example, NaCl is Sodium Chloride

Negative ions (ANIONS) Positive Ions (CATIONS) Positive Ions (CATIONS) NAME CHARGE SYMBOL NAME CHARGE SYMBOL Bromide 1- Br- Aluminum 3+

Al3+ Chloride 1- Cl- Barium 2+ Ba2+ Fluoride 1- F- Calcium 2+ Ca2+ Hydride 1-

H- Copper (I) 1+ Cu1+ Iodide 1- I- Copper (II) 2+ Cu2+ Nitride 3- N3- Hydrogen

1+ H1+ Oxide 2- O2- Iron (II) 2+ Fe2+ Phosphide 3- P3- Iron (III) 3+ Fe3+ Sulfide

2- S2- Lead (II) 2+ Pb2+ Lead (IV) 4+ Pb4+ Lithium 1+ Pb1+ Magnesium 2+ Pb2+

NAME Manganese (II) Nickel (II) Potassium Silver Sodium Strontium Tin (II) Tin (IV) Zinc CHARGE 2+ SYMBOL Mn2+ 2+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 2+ 2+ 4+ 2+ Ni2+ K1+

Ag1+ Na1+ Sr2+ Sn2+ Sn4+ Zn2+ Most transition metal ions (and a few other metal ions) include a Roman numberal after the name, for example, copper (II). These metals form ions with varying charges, and the Roman numberal identifies the charge in each case. Elements that commonly form an ion with only a single charge for example, sodium, do not have Roman numberal associated with them. Check up 05a Name these binary compounds NaCl SrO AlN BaCl2 K2O CuO Cu2O

Check up 05a Convert these names to formulae. Magnesium nitride Barium bromide Aluminum phosphide Potassium iodide Lithium chloride Sodium fluoride Tin (IV) bromide Binary acids Acids will be discussed at great length later in the course, but for the purposes of nomenclature, and acid can be defined as a compound that produces hydrogen ions (H+) when it is dissolved in water, and the formulae of acids start with H. Binary acids are formed when hydrogen ions combine with monatomic anions. To name a binary acids use the prefix hydro followed by the other non-metal name modified to an ic ending. Then add the word acid. For example, HCl is hydrochloric acid.

Polyatomic ions Polyatomic ions are those where more than one element are combined together to creat a species with a charge. Some of these ions can be named systematically, others names must be learned. Some common polyatomic ions, their charges and formulae are listed on the next page. Common Polyatomic Ions Name Charge Formula Ammonium 1+ NH4+ Carbonate 2- CO32- Chromate (VI)

2- CrO42- Dichromate (VI) 2- Cr2O72- Ethanedioate 2- C2O42- Hydrogen carbonate 1- HCO3- Hydrogen sulfate 1- HSO4-

Hydroxide 1- OH- Manganate (VII) (Permanganate) Nitrate 1- MnO4- 1- NO3- Nitrite 1- NO2- Phosphate 3- PO43-

Sulfate 2- SO42- Sulfite 2- SO32- Polyatomic ions Polyatomic anions where oxygen is combined with another non-metal are called oxoanions and can be named systematically. In these oxoanions certain non-metals (CL, N, P and S) form a series of oxoanions containing different numbers of oxygen atoms. Their names are related to the number of oxygen atoms present, and are based upon the system below. Name Number of oxygen atoms Hypo(element)ite 1 (Element)ite

2 (Element)ate 3 Per (element)ate 4 Oxoanions Where there are only two members in such a series the endings are ite and ate. Example sulfite (SO32-) and sulfate (SO42-). When there are four members in the series the hypo- and per- prefixes are used additionally. Some Oxoanions contain hydrogen and are named accordingly, for example, HPO42-, hydrogen phosphate. The prefix this- means that a sulfur atom has replaced an atom of oxygen in an anion. To name an ionic compound that contains a polyatomic ion, the unmodified name of the positive ions is written first followed by unmodified name of the negative ion. For example, K2CO3 is potassium carbonate. Oxoacids Oxoacids are formed when hydrogen ions combine with polyatomic oxoanions. This gives a combination of hydrogen, oxygen and another non-metal To name an oxoacid use the name of the oxoanions and replace the ite

ending with ous or the ate ending with ic. Then add the word acid. For example, H2SO4 is sulfuric acid. To illustrate the names of these oxoanions and oxoacids consider the following example using chlorine as the non-metal. Formula and name of oxoacid Formula and name of corresponding oxoanion HClO Hypochlorous acid ClO- Hypochlorite HClO2 Chlorous acid ClO2- Chlorite HClO3 Chloric Acid ClO3-

Chlorate HClO4 Perchloric acid ClO4- Perchlorate Checkup 05b What are the formulae fo the following ionic compounds? Ammonium nitrate Copper (II) bromide Copper (I) bromide Zinc hydrogen sulfate Aluminum sulfate Sodium perchlorate Copper (II) iodite

Checkup 05b Convert the following formulae to names NaNO3 KMnO4 CaC2O4 CuSO4 Cu2SO4 KNO2 LiClO4 Binary compounds of two nonmetals (molecular compounds) If the two elements in a binary compound are non-metals, then the compound is molecular To name a molecular compound of two non-melt as, the unmodified name of the first element is followed by the root of the second element with ending modified to ide. In order to distinguish between several different compounds with the same elements present use the prefixes mono, di, Tri, tetra, penta and hexa to represent one, two, three, four, five, and six atoms of the element respectively. Example, SO2 is sulfur dioxide

Binary compounds of two nonmetals Formula Name BCl3 Boron trichloride CCl4 Carbon tetrachloride CO Carbon monoxide CO2 Carbon dioxide NO Nitrogen monoxide NO2 Nitrogen dioxide Note that the prefix mono is only applied to the second element present in such compounds, if the prefix ends with

a or o, and the element name begins with a or o, then the final vowel of the prefix is often omitted Some compounds have trivial names that have come to supersede their systematic names, for example, H 2O is usually. Water, not dihydrogen monoxide Checkup 05c Write formula or names for the following molecular compounds Dinitrogen tetroxide Phosphorous pentachloride Iodine trifluoride Nitrogen dioxide Dihydrogen monoxide Checkup 05c Convert the following formulae to names N2O5 PCl3 SF6

H2 O Cl2O Hydrates Hydrates are ionic formula units with water molecules associated with them. The water molecules are incorporated into the solid structure of the ions. Strong heating can generally drive off the water in these salts. Once the water has been removed the salts are said to be anhydrous (without water). To name a hydrate use the normal name of the ionic compound followed by the term hydrate with an appropriate prefix to show the number of water molecules per ionic formula unit. Example, CuSO4-5H2O is Copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate

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