Long Term Residential Care for people with dementia in Ireland. New findings from a DSIDC National Survey Associate Professor Suzanne Cahill Dr. Caroline O Nolan Ms. Dearbhla O Caheny Dr. Andrea Bobersky Literature Dementia- a key predictor of need for long term residential care and many people with severe dementia require residential care (Butcher et al., Caron, Ducharme & Griffith, 2006; Castle, 2001; Park, Butcher & Maas, 2004; Thorson & Davis, 2000). 2001; Ryan & Scullion, 2000). Challenging behaviours, the absence of adequate community
supports and caregiver burden are all key factors contributing to the breakdown of community care (Naleppa, 1997; Pinquart & Soerensen, 2003; Smith & Crome, 2000). On average people with dementia in residential care are older and have more severe dementia than community dwellers (Meehan et al., 2004; Schulz et al., 2004; The average length of stay for people with dementia in residential care is longer (Australian and New Zealand Society for Geriatric Medicine, 2011) . The International Context Government policy in several overseas countries reflects a commitment to planning more specialist long term residential care
for people with dementia (Alzheimers Disease International, 2013; Alzheimer Europe, 2013). These facilities are called different names, but each is underpinned by similar person centred principles which promote autonomy, choice, participation and empower the individual (Verbeek, 2011). Dementia specific long term care: US, 17% Norway and Sweden about 20%, Luxembourg 40% The Netherlands 25%, with a commitment to increase to 33%
by 2015 (De Lange et al., 2011). Best Practice in Dementia Care Separate rooms for separate functions Individual en suite bed rooms Small scale domestic units (< 10 residents) Staff are dementia trained Meaningful activities (domestic and therapeutic) Therapeutic gardens Unobtrusive concern for safety Control of noise and external stimuli (Judd, Marshall, Phippen,1998)
The Irish Context No database/register of dementia specific units. No information of how many SCUs exist & where they are located No data on who the main providers are: private, private and voluntary. Lack of knowledge about the ethos and approach to care and the extent to which facilities operate comply with best practice. A need to address this gap in our knowledge and
understanding and to develop a directory of SCUs. Key Research Questions Who are the main providers of long term residential care to older people in the Republic of Ireland? Who are the main providers (private, public and voluntary) of long term specialist dementia care? How many, and where are these SCUs located in Ireland?
To what extent do SCUs comply with best practice principles? Research Methods Population of complete coverage- all long stay residential care facilities for older people in Ireland (N=602) Self administered questionnaire designed and pre tested. Two part questionnaire, Part A for all Nursing Homes and
Part B for Specialist Care Units only. Data collected by this self administered questionnaire and later by telephone interviews. Response rate was 78%. Table 1: Response rate Method Date Self administered questionnaire circulated to 602 September and October 2013 Email contact made with questionnaire attached
November 2013 Telephone contact and telephone interview Two additional returns January 2014 Total Returned/Completed Questionnaire 302 44 121 2 469
Figure 1: Nursing Home Population by Provider Type 13.00% Private HSE Voluntary 22.00% 65.00% Number of SCUs Figure 2: Number of SCUs by Provider Type Analysis based on 54 self identified SCUs providing care to 1034 PwD (2%
of population of PwD in Ireland or 4.5% of all people in long stay care). 7.00% Only 5% of all residents in these SCUs 30.00% aged less than 65 and only 1 person had AD related to Downs Syndrome. 66 respite beds were available across 54 SCUs most of which (over two thirds) were provided by the HSE. 63.00% Private HSE
Voluntary Location of SCUs in Ireland (N=54) Table 2: Examples of Inequalities in Service Provision across the Republic of Ireland LHO Area No. of SCUs LHO Area No. of SCUs Cork
13 Dublin North East 0 Cavan/Monaghan 5 Dublin West 0 Donegal 5 Dublin North
Central 0 Galway 5 Dublin North West 0 Carlow 0 Wicklow 0
Other Key Findings Size of Units Physical Layout Admission Policy Activities Staff Training End of Life Policy Size of Units Figure 3: Size of SCUs based on Number of Residents 4 5 9 7
16 13 Average number of residents: 19.1 10 or less residents 11-15 residents 16-20 residents 21-30 residents 31-40 residents 40-60 residents The Physical Environment of Specialist Care Units Figure 4: The Provision of Single
Bedrooms by Provider Type (N=54) 23 14 All residents have their own bedroom 11 Column1 2 Private HSE 4 0 Voluntary
Admission Criteria used Figure 6: Provider type and Admission Criteria used (N=54) Pre Admission Assessment Behaviours that Challenge 12 4 Clinical Diagnosis 13 4 13
8 1 6 Be independently mobile 2 32 11 19 Voluntary HSE Private Therapeutic
Gardens and Meaningful Activities Therapeutic activities and Multi Sensory Gardens Wide range of activities noted including aromatherapy, music & art therapy, Sonas program and yoga. Almost all (89%) of SCUs had a therapeutic garden.
Some examples of creativity and best practice: Some residents are retired mechanics and teachers. We have placed a car in the courtyard to facilitate this and developed a teachers corner with blackboard and visits to schools for those retired teachers Garden design from Nightengale House Care Home London Figure 7: Domestic Activities offered by SCUs by provider type (N=54) 17 10 Private
20 6 8 5 All Some None No response Figure 9: Dementia Specific Training: Other Staff (N=54) 18 18 16 13
14 12 9 10 All Some None 8 6 4 3 4 3
1 2 0 Private HSE 1 Voluntary 2 End of Life Care Policy End of Life Care Policy
Majority (89%) provided rich and detailed written narratives on EOL Four key themes emerged: Involvement of family members Palliative Care Dignity and Respect Transfer
Typical Responses All residents should have the right to privacy and dignity at end of life. Their wishes and beliefs are recorded in their care plan. If the residents is unable to voice this, the information is obtained from the family or next of kin and from the residents life history An individualised person-centred care plan is documented
for all residents with dementia. Decisions regarding end of life care are collaborative and made in the best interest of the family Transferring out of SCUs at End of Life Seven SCUs (14%) reported a policy of either always or sometimes discharging residents with dementia from SCUs at end of life. This practice of discharging residents at end of life was more common in HSE SCUs. Following assessment and consultation with the next of kin, transfer to a long stay unit (occurs) where end of life care can be given with access to the home care team if required
As residents move to a stage of dependency we maintain that as it is a dementia unit, that they are prepared (family members) for the move to another unit in our facility.. Discussion The survey identified 602 long stay residential care settings across the ROI, most of which were operated by private providers (65%). The survey also found 54 self identified SCUs who provide specialist long term residential care to some 1034 men and women with dementia.
Within each SCU, results showed that numbers of residents varied, but most SCUS are larger than what is recommended by best practice guidelines and by Irish Supplementary Standards for SCUs (HIQA, 2009,19: 10) Discussion The survey found that private operators are the dominant providers even though no supplementary bed-rate is paid, and there is no financial incentive to encourage necessary capital investment. Location of SCUs appears arbitrary and coherence in provision will be dependent on policy reform.
Some unexpected findings in relation to admission policies, respite care provision and EOL practice in some HSE units. Despite the expected increase in prevalence of dementia in Ireland, no significant expansion in supply is likely in the foreseeable future. Conclusions Expanding the supply of dementia specific beds in SCUs may be dependent on the NTPF rates being more realistically linked to dependency levels of residents Results also have implications for best practice and for HIQA particularly in light of its current review of
residential care standards. These findings have been used to compile a guide on SCUs for family caregivers and health service professionals. Acknowledgements Thank you to all the Directors of Nursing/Nurse Managers and staff who assisted the DSIDC with this survey, and who responded to our request for information and gave us their valuable time. References
Alzheimers Disease International (2013). Government Alzheimer Plans. Retrieved from http://www.alz.co.uk/alzheimer-plans [Accessed 20/04/2013]. Alzheimer Europe (2013). Prevalence of dementia in Europe. Retrieved from http://www.alzheimer-europe.org/Research/European-Collaboration-on-Dem entia/Prevalence-of-dementia/Prevalence-of-dementia-in-Europe [Accessed 17/04/2013] Australian and New Zealand Society for Geriatric Medicine (2011) Position Statement Nos 9 and 10 The Geriatricians Perspective on Medical Services to Residential Aged Care Facilities (RCFs) in Australia. (Revised August 2011 ) Bobersky, A. (2013). Its been a good move. Transitions into care: Family caregivers, persons with dementia, and formal staff members experiences of specialist care unit placement (Unpublished Ph.D. thesis). Trinity College
Dublin, Ireland. References Butcher, H. K., Holkup, P. A., Park, M., & Maas, M. (2001). Thematic analysis of the experience of making a decision to place a family member with Alzheimer's disease in a special care unit. Research in nursing & health,24(6), 470-480. Cahill S, OShea E and Pierce M (2012) Creating excellence in dementia care: A research review for Irelands dementia strategy. Caron, C. D., Ducharme, F., & Griffith, J. (2006). Deciding on institutionalization for a relative with dementia: the most difficult decision for caregivers. Canadian Journal on Aging, 25(2), 193-206.
Castle, N. G. (2001). Relocation of the elderly. Medical Care Research and Review, 58(3), 291-333. References De Lange, J., Willemse, B., Smit, D., & Pot, A. M. (2011). Housing with care for people with dementia in the Netherlands [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.socialwork-socialpolicy.tcd.ie/livingwithdementia/assets/pdf/Jaco minedeLange.pdf [Accessed 11/11/2011] HIQA (2009). National Quality Standards for Residential Care Settings for Older People in Ireland. Health Information and Quality Authority, Dublin and
Cork. Judd, S., Marshall, M., & Phippen, P. (1998) 'Design for Dementia. London, United Kingdom: Hawker. Meehan, T., Robertson, S., Stedman, T., & Byrne, G. (2004). Outcomes for elderly patients with mental illness following relocation from a stand-alone psychiatric hospital to community-based extended care units. Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry, 38(11-12), 948-952. References Naleppa, M. J. (1997). Families and the institutionalized elderly: A
review.Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 27(1-2), 87-111. Park, M., Butcher, H. K., & Maas, M. L. (2004). A thematic analysis of Korean family caregivers' experiences in making the decision to place a family member with dementia in a longterm care facility. Research in nursing & health, 27(5), 345-356. O'Shea, E., & O'Reilly, S. (1999). An action plan for dementia. Dublin: National Council on Ageing and Older People. Pinquart, M., & Srensen, S. (2003). Associations of stressors and uplifts of caregiving with caregiver burden and depressive mood: a metaanalysis. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58(2), P112-P128. Ryan, A. A., & Scullion, H. F. (2000). Nursing home placement: an exploration of the experiences of family carers. Journal of advanced nursing, 32(5), 1187-1195. References
Schulz, R., Belle, S. H., Czaja, S. J., McGinnis, K. A., Stevens, A., & Zhang, S. (2004). Long-term care placement of dementia patients and caregiver health and well-being. Jama, 292(8), 961-967. Smith, A. E., & Crome, P. (2000). Relocation mosaic-a review of 40 years of resettlement literature. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, 10(1), 81-95. Thorson, J. A., & Davis, R. E. (2000). Relocation of the institutionalized aged.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56(1), 131138. Verbeek, H (2011) Redesigning dementia care. An evaluation of small scale, homelike care environments (Unpublished Ph. D thesis). Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
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