Trao đổi saccharide

Trao đổi saccharide

Trao i saccharide 2.3.1. S phn gii saccharide 2.3.1.1. S phn gii polysaccharide v disaccharide 2.3.1.2. S xy ha monosaccharide Trao i saccharide i cng v saccharide saccharine cung cp 70-80% nng lng cho c th ng vt saccharine trong mu l ngun nhin liu chnh cho mi hot ng sng, c ngun gc t s hp thu ng tiu ha, t cc tin cht glycogen, fructose, galactose, amino acid chuyn ha gan. Hp thu glucose: Hp thu th ng gin n v protein

GLUT (glucose transporter) mng t bo. Gan l c quan chnh iu ha hm lng glucose mu Glucose c d tr gan di dng glycogen ng vt tng t nh amidon thc vt ( gan 3-6%, c 0.5%). S phn gii polysaccharide v disaccharide Xy ra trong ng tiu ha di tc ng ca nhm E amylase (, , ). Ch 2 a im xy ra qu trnh thy phn l: Khoang ming: Phn gii 1 phn nh cc poly-sac do c E amylase sp thng l cc dng oligosac. Rut non: Cc E phn gii glucid ni trn u c trong dch rut non do trong dch ty s tit vo trong rut, nim mc, rut non c y cc E

sp l cc mono, disac. Thm qua cc mao mch rut vo h tun hon. S phn gii polysaccharide v disaccharide -amylase ch ct lin kt -D-glucosidic-1,4 c kh nng ct khong gia -amylase cng ch ct lin kt 1,4 nhng c kh nng ct bt u t u khng kh -amylase c bit c tng hp t vi sinh vt c kh nng ct lin kt 1,4 v enzyme loi tr (kh) s phn nhnh (debranching enzyme, c hat tnh glucosidase) ct dy ni 1,6 trong amylopectin v glycogen. cellulase

pectinase,... S phn gii tinh bt S phn gii polysaccharide v disaccharide Qu trnh phosphoryl- phn (phosphorolysis) l qu trnh to glucose-1-P nh enzyme phosphorylase (glycogen phosphorylase hay phosphorylase tinh bt) vi s hin din ca ion phosphate. S phosphoryl-phn to glucose-1-phosphate Qu trnh glycolyse (ng phn hay

Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas - EMP) L qu trnh oxy ha t glucose thnh acid pyruvic c th xy ra trong giai on ym kh hoc hiu kh v qu trnh ph bin nht trong cc qu trnh chuyn ha t monose, v hu ht cc qu trnh chuyn ho monose giai on u u qua qu trnh glycose gii, c khc nhau t pyruvic v sau. Phn ng 1: Glucose c phosphoryl ha C6 cho sn phm glucose-6-P vi s tham gia ca ATP. Phn ng 2: Chuyn ha glucose-6-P thnh fructose-6-P Phn ng 3: Phosphoryl ha fructose-6-P thnh

fructose1,6 biphosphate Phn ng 4: Phn ct Fructose 1,6 biphosphate Fructose1,6 biphosphate b phn ct thnh triose phosphate :3phosphate glyceraldehyde v dihydroxy acetonphosphate. Phn ng 5: Chuyn ha ni phn t triose phosphate Ch mt trong hai triose phosphate l aldose: 3-P glyceraldehyde tham gia tip vo qu trnh ng phn. Nhng dihydroxyaceton-P c th c chuyn ha thnh 3-P glyceraldehyde nh triose phosphate isomerase. Phn ng 6: Oxy ha 3-P glyceraldehyde thnh 1,3 biphosphoglycerate Phn ng 7: l giai on dephosphoryl ha v

chuyn v ng phn t dng phenol (OH) ceton (C=O) Phn ng 8: Chuyn ha 3P glycerate thnh 2P glycerate (chuyn gc P ni phn t) nh enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase cn Mg2+ cho hot ng ca n. y l phn ng thun nghch: Phn ng 9: 2P glycerate b loi nc to thnh phosphoenolpyruvate, l phn ng thun nghch c xc tc bi enzyme enolase. Phn ng 10: Chuyn nhm phosphate t phosphoenolpyruvate n ADP, phn ng c xc tc bi pyruvat kinase, to ATP v pyruvate

. II. S CHUYN HA CC HP CHT GLUCID Qu trnh oxyho h hp Con ng Embden Meyerhoff Parnas II. S CHUYN HA CC HP CHT GLUCID Qu trnh oxyho h hp Sn phm cui cng ca qu trnh ng phn l a. ATP, NADH, acetyl-CoA b. ATP, FADH2, pyruvate

c. ATP, NADH, pyruvate d. NADH, FADH2, pyruvate Sn phm trung gian quan trng sau glycolyse l acid pyruvic, t y ty tng iu kin m theo tng con ng ym kh, hiu kh, nng lng thu c qua chu trnh glycolyse l 8 ATP. A. pyruvic theo 2 hng: hiu kh v ym kh. II. S CHUYN HA CC HP CHT GLUCID Qu trnh ln men SUGAR Lactobacillus +2H

D or L acid lactic Acid pyruvic Klebsiella, Bacillus + acid pyruvic - CO2 ATP Acid acetolactic +2H

Acid malic H2 2,3-butanediol ADP CO2 Shigella Acid formic + 2H - 2H2O

Acetyl-S- CoA Escherichia Acid succinic - CO2 Acetoin +2H + CO2 Acid oxaloacetic

- CO2 Acetobacter Acid acetic CO2 Saccharomyces +4H; - CoA-SH - CoA-SH H2 Ethanol

+ Acetyl-S- CoA - CoA-SH Acid propionic Acetoacetyl-S-CoA Propionibacter Clostridium isopropanol + 2H

Acetone - CoA-SH - CO2 +4H Butyryl-S-CoA +4H - CoA-SH Butanol Acid butyric

Ln men ru: Nm men v mt s vi khun khc c th chuyn ha pyruvate thnh ethanol v CO2. Qu trnh tri qua 2 phn ng. (pH= 4-5) II. S CHUYN HA CC HP CHT GLUCID Qu trnh ln men Ln men ru Ln men bia II. S CHUYN HA CC HP CHT GLUCID

Qu trnh ln men II. S CHUYN HA CC HP CHT GLUCID Qu trnh oxyho h hp Ln men sa chua II. S CHUYN HA CC HP CHT GLUCID Qu trnh ln men Ln men acetic Phn bit ng phn EMP v s ln men ng ng phn

Ln men T bo TBV TBVSV iu kin mi trng O2 Sn phm

Ni dung phn ng Khng O2 Pyruvate Lactate Khng O2 SPLM Hon ton ging nhau Qu trnh phn gii glucose trong iu kin hiu kh Chia lm 4 giai on

Phn gii glucose thnh pyruvate (qu trnh ng phn). Chuyn ha pyruvate thnh acetyl- CoA. Oxy ha acetyl- CoA thng qua chu trnh Krebs (chu trnh citric acid). Oxy ha cc coenzyme kh qua chui h hp(xem phn khi nim v s trao i cht). S OXID HO KH CARBOXYL PYRUVATE NAD+ O H3C-C- COOH Pyruvate

CoASH NADH.H+ CO2 O H3CCCoA AcetylCoA Phc hp pyruvate dehydrogenase Pyruvate decarboxylase (TPP) Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase

CHU TRNH KREBS - Con ng oxid ho hon ton, gii phng ton b nng lng t do trong c cht - H thng enzyme trong dch ty th - Nguyn liu: AcetylCoA v Oxaloacetate -Nguyn liu POLYSACCHARIDE TRIACYLGLYCEROL GLUCOSE PROTEIN

AMINO ACID GLYCEROL H3C-C-COOH O Pyruvate H3C-CH-COOH NH2 Alanine HOOC-H2C-C-COOH FATTY ACID

H3C-CSCoA O Acetyl CoA O Oxaloacetate HOOC-H2C-CH-COOH NH2 Aspartate CHU TRNH KREBS (CT CITRATE, CT. TRICARBOXYLIC ACID- TA) - Cc phn ng trong chu trnh Krebs

O HH ++ CoASH H3C-C SCo + 2OO ++ NADH.H FAD NADH.H FADH CoASH NAD NAD CO

NADH.H 2 2 2 H2H O2O A CH -COOH CH CH222-COOH -COOH CH -COOH CH

-COOH AcetylCoA 22 CH H -COOH HO- CCH O= C-COOH -COOH 2 -COOH CH -COOH HCH O-CH-COOH -COOH

CH C-COOH C-COOH 2 2 CH CH CH -CO -COOH SCo 2 -COOH 2 2 CH

-COOH -COOH CH -COOH H OH O C-COOH O C CH -COOH CH A -COOH 1 23Citrate Cis aconitase

Isocitrate 2 Cis aconitase Malate synthetase 2 10 9 Isocitrate Hydratase SuccinylCoA Oxaloacetate Fumarate Oxalosuccinate Cis aconitate

O C-COOH CH2-COOH Oxaloacetate Succinate 4 58 dehydrogenase dehydrogenase dehydrogenase dehydrogenase CO2 CoASH GTP GDP+P

i 67 Succinate Phc hp synthetase Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase Malate Ketoglutarate Citrate Isocitrate Succinate

-Nng lng: Oxid ho 1 phn t acetylCoA Phn ng - Enzyme Dng nng lng ATP Isocitrate dehydrogenase -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase NADH.H+ NADH.H+

3 ATP 3 ATP SuccinylCoA synthetase Succinate dehydrogenase GTP FADH2 ATP 2 ATP NADH.H+

3 ATP Malate dehydrogenase Tng cng 12 ATP ngha ca chu trnh Krebs L chu trnh cho nhiu nng lng nht L con ng chung nht, ph bin nht, nhiu s chuyn ha phi qua chu trnh To hng lot nhiu sn phm trung gian, sp trung gian l nguyn liu tng hp nn cc cht khc, c th l cc cht tham gia trong chuyn ha

cc cht khc. Vd: alpha cetoglutaric tham gia tng hp acid amin. Acetyl CoA tham gia trong qu trnh tng hp acid bo (cht bo) A. pyruvic l ch giao nhau ca trao i glucid, lipid, a.a Lng ATP ti a khi t bo h hp mt phn t glucose Glucose T bo cht ng phn

2 Acetyl CoA Krebs Ty th 2 Pyruvate 2NADH 2 ATP 6NADH 2FADH2

2NADH (substrate-level phosphorylation) ETC , Oxi ha Phosphoryl ha 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2ATP 6ATP 6ATP

18ATP 4ATP 38 ATP (tI a cho mi glucose) 2ATP

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