Title

Title

Writing Reports, Proposals, and Technical Documents By Laurie A. Pinkert Presentation Overview Genres and constraints Scientific style Document design Textual features Writing and revision

Principles An exercise Genres and Constraints Reports Proposals Other technical documents (abstracts, etc.) What is Style? Document design Formatting standards

Rules or guidelines Writing principles Disciplinary Differences Best Practices in the Humanities: Flexible conventions for structure depending on the task; transitions, rather than headings, are commonly used to demarcate major sections

of writing Reliance of text rather than visual elements to convey main ideas Transitions generally signify changes in or two emphasize particular aspects of the authors position (therefore, furthermore, in any case) Use MLA or other appropriate humanities styles to cite

sources Best Practices in the Sciences: Strict adherence to structural genre conventions, such as the abstract, introduction, methods, results, references Use multiple visual elements, such as charts or graphs, to demonstrate important concepts

Clear procedural transitions that signal particular steps in an experiment (e.g., first, second, third) Use of a discipline-appropriate scientific style of citation Document Design Headers Use distinguishable features (e.g., bold, all caps, larger font, etc.)

Spacing between sections Should be consistent Each textual unit should use the same font and size Headers should all be the same font and size Body text should all be the same font and size These sections may differ from one another Document Design

Tables and charts should be All the same size Labeled consistently Scaled appropriately Embedded in text or located in an appendix

Placed immediately after the paragraph that first refers to it Referred to in text Simple Table * Sample from p. 16 Complex Table * Sample from p. 18

Figures * Sample from p. 19 Principles for Writing Clearly 1. Open your sentences with short concrete subjects that name the characters. 2. Use specific verbs to name their important actions. 3. Get to the main verb quickly. 4. Open your sentences with information familiar to reader.

5. Push new, complex units of information to the end of the sentence. 6. Begin sentences constituting a passage with consistent topic/ subjects. 7. Be concise. 8. Control sprawl. 9. Use parallel structures. 10. Above all, write to others as you have others write to you. * Principles from Joseph Williamss (2012) Style: The Basics of Clarity and Grace #4 - Start with Familiar Information

By starting with the familiar, you should be able to make connections between your findings and your conclusions TRY: After identifying the lethal allele, we modified our selections in the next round. Not: The lethal allele changed my strategy. Language to Create Connections Addition Furthermore, In addition, Moreover

Elaboration By extension, In short, In other words Example For instance, For example, As an illustration Comparison Likewise, Similarly Cause and effect Accordingly, Consequently, Hence, As a result

#7 Be Concise but Clear Use plain language Scientific reports are fairly straightforward, so avoid metaphors, similes, allusions, etc. TRY: The selections in round two were informed by my prior experience. NOT: Making selections was easy as pie. #6 - Begin with Consistent Subjects Topics are crucial for readers because readers

depend on topics to focus their attention on particular ideas toward the beginning of sentences. Topics tell readers what a whole passage is "about." If readers feel that a sequence of topics is coherent, then they will feel they are moving through a paragraph from a cumulatively coherent point of view. But if throughout the paragraph readers feel that its topics shift randomly, then they have to begin each sentence out of context, from no coherent point of view. When that happens, readers feel dislocated, disoriented, and out of

focus. #2 Use Specific Verbs Topics are crucial for readers because readers depend on topics to focus their attention on particular ideas toward the beginning of sentences. Topics tell readers what a whole passage is "about." If readers feel that a sequence of topics is coherent, then they will feel they are moving through a paragraph from a cumulatively coherent point of view. But if throughout the paragraph

readers feel that its topics shift randomly, then they have to begin each sentence out of context, from no coherent point of view. When that happens, readers feel dislocated, disoriented, and out of focus. Additional Resources Visit the Purdue Online Writing Lab: http://owl.english.purdue.edu Email brief questions to the OWL Mail Tutors: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/contact/owlmailtutors

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association Scientific Writing Guide: https://cbc.arizona.edu/sites/cbc.arizona.edu/files/marc/ Sci-Writing.pdf The End

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Environmental effects on tooth structure development

    Environmental effects on tooth structure development

    May occur at any age, any tooth Most affect 8~9yr-old children and D , E , D , E PDL absent Occlusal, periodontal problems, impaction of the underlying teeth Treatment and Prognosis Variable : extraction, orthodontics, segmental osteotomy DEVELOPMENTAL ALTERATIONS...
  • DECIBELS - San Antonio Radio Club

    DECIBELS - San Antonio Radio Club

    The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit used to express the ratio of two values of a physical quantity, often power or intensity. It is not a unit of measurement such as a Volt.. One of the values of the...
  • Thermochemistry (4 lectures)

    Thermochemistry (4 lectures)

    No, as we'll see soon Schedule Lecture 1: Electronic absorption spectroscopy Jahn-Teller effect and the spectra of d1, d4, d6 and d9 ions Lecture 2: Interpreting electronic spectra Interelectron repulsion and the nephelauxetic effect Lecture 3: Interpreting electronic spectra Selection...
  • cs164: Introduction to Programming Languages and Compilers

    cs164: Introduction to Programming Languages and Compilers

    Lecture 11Implementing Small Languagesinternal vs. external DSLs, hybrid small DSLs. Ras Bodik . Shaon BarmanThibaud Hottelier. Hack Your Language! CS164: Introduction to Programming Languages and Compilers, Spring 2012UC Berkeley. In sp12, I did not manage to cover all in 80...
  • Thursday, September 10, 2009 Science Vocabulary (pg 2)

    Thursday, September 10, 2009 Science Vocabulary (pg 2)

    Thursday, September 10, 2009 Science Vocabulary (pg 2) Theory A set of statements or principles devised to explain a group of facts or phenomena, especially one that has been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted and can be used to...
  • Five Things Every Win32 Developer Should Know

    Five Things Every Win32 Developer Should Know

    Child Window Controls CS 1253 Visual Programming Unit I Topic 5
  • MAYLA MEMBERSHIP MEETING Spring 2020 November 6, 2019

    MAYLA MEMBERSHIP MEETING Spring 2020 November 6, 2019

    , we will probably have a loss in the $14-$15k range, could be higher if we lose any programs from last season. The revenue from this year's MAYLA Challenge was down by $10k from previous year.
  • Presentazione di PowerPoint

    Presentazione di PowerPoint

    Cap control of consumption + efficiency enhancement by targets and indicators. ... Institutional reform ... Greening of jobs of the tertiary sector (financial services sector, trade, accommodation, food service activities, transportation and storage) - provides job to 7 out of...