Theories of Evolution

Theories of Evolution

9.2 Theories of Evolution Key Concepts: 1. What are Lamarcks theories of evolution? 2. What is Darwins theory of natural selection? 3. What is some evidence for evolution?

Key Vocabulary: Evolution Population Adaptation Fitness Homologus structure Vestigial structure Evolution

Change in a population over time What is a population? A group of the same species in an area. Evolution can result in new organisms emerging and other organisms going extinct. Jean Baptist Lamarck French scientist who

developed the first theories of evolution Lamarcks two theories: 1. Theory of acquired characteristics 2. Theory of: Use & Dissuse THEY WERE BOTH Theory of Acquired

Characteristics Stated that organisms could improve their traits and pass these improvements onto their offspring How did Lamarck believe that a giraffe evolved? As giraffes reached for ever higher leaves their

necks got longer over the generations. WE KNOW TODAY THAT THIS IS WRONG! Theory of Acquired Characteristics How did a mouse help to disprove

Lamarcks theory? (scientist august weismen) Weismen cut the tails off mice so they couldnt use them their offspring were born with tails. What didnt Lamarck understand

when he developed his theory? (think Punnett squares) - Lamarck did not understand genetics that traits are passed down through genes. Theory of Use and Disuse Lamarck also believed that traits organisms used would grow stronger and unused

traits would disappear Vestigial organs disprove Lamarcks theory Vestigial organs serve no useful function in an organism What are some human vestigial organs? WISDOM TEETH, goose bumps.

Charles Darwin Was British naturalist who developed our modern theory of evolution by natural selection Voyaged around the globe on the H.M.S. Beagle As a naturalist, Darwin collected and studied many types of plant and

animal life Theory of Natural Selection Darwin developed his theory of evolution from observations he made Galapagos Islands He observed many new species of animals including tortoise and birds

Darwins theory of evolution is called: Theory of Evolution by natural selection Theory of Natural Selection Adaptations are traits that allow organisms to survive better in their environment How are fish adapted to their environment?

Darwin used the word fitness to describe the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce The higher your fitness the more you can reproduce Evidence for Evolution Fossils show how organisms changed structurally over time How did the camel fossils change over time?

Evidence for Evolution Anatomy shows how different organisms have similar structures Common anatomy suggests that different organisms may have come from a common ancestor Homologous Structures - derived from a common ancestor may have a different function

Homologous Structures What are the functions of these similar structures? Evidence for Evolution DNA and protein analysis indicates that closely related organisms have very similar DNA sequences WHAT IS A CLADOGRAM? Diagram shows

evolutionary relationships between dif. organisms Evidence for Evolution Based on this chart what are the three most closely related species to humans?

Which species is farthest away from humans? EVIDENCE of EVO MOVIE Speciation Divergent evolution when isolated populations evolve

into separate species. Adaptive radiation when isolated populations adapt and evolve into many different species. Ex. finches DIVERGENT EVOLUTION~GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION

Speciation Convergent evolution when two unrelated species evolve similar traits. Ex. Orca whale and clown fish both have fins but one is a mammal an the other is a fish! Speciation Coevolution when two independent species evolve to adapt to each other. Ex. Plants and insects or birds

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