The Scarlet Ibis

The Scarlet Ibis

The Scarlet Ibis By: James Hurst What is an Ibis?

South American wading bird Bright red in color with black wing tips In the same family as the stork and heron Measures 56 58cm in length, and weighs 775 925 g. Juveniles have brown markings on their heads and necks The Ibis will get darker (red) as it ages

There are over 20 species of the Ibis birds Birds inhabit tropical South America the Caribbean The Ibis is the national bird of Trinidad and Tobago and is featured on their coat of arms Though abundant in places, their numbers are declining due to the destruction of their habitats, hunting, and excessive use of pesticides

Diet consists of shrimp, crabs, shellfish, and aquatic insects The breeding season is variable but often occurs after heavy rains They generally lay two eggs, which are incubated for 21 23 days They are social birds that join together to form large flocks in the breeding season often with

heron and other birds Then they all pair off although they mate with more than one individual Author Information: James Hurst Born in 1922 James grew up on a coastal farm in Jacksonville, North Carolina Served in the army in World War II

Studied to be a chemical engineer Also studied singing/acting at Julliard School in New York City Hurst moved to Italy to pursue a career in opera but returned after just three years When James returned to the United States, he became a banker and remained in that career

for 34 years In his spare time, James wrote plays and short stories, including The Scarlet Ibis He finally retired from banking and returned to North Carolina The Story The Scarlet Ibis was first published in The Atlantic Monthly in July 1960

The story quickly became a classic and has been seen in almost every high-school literature textbook since the 1960s Hurst states that the three major characters of this story are Doodle, the narrator, and the setting When asked what this story is about, he stated, that it comments on the tenacity and the splendor of the human spirit.

James Hursts Hope He wants the readers of The Scarlet Ibis to think of how the war raging among brothers in Europe is related to the conflict between Doodle and his brother. He reflects, People always suffer when others try to make them over in their own image. The Scarlet Ibis and Allegory

Allegory a story in which characters, settings, and actions stand for something beyond themselves. An allegory can be read on one level for its literal, straightforward meaning, and on a second level for its symbolic, or allegorical meaning. Allegories are often intended to teach a moral lesson or to make a comment about goodness and vice. 3 Big Allegorical Ideas

The danger of attempting to make others over in ones own image The brotherhood of all mankind The waste of life resulting from a lack of love and compassion. The Scarlet Ibis World War I (1914 1918) Significant numbers of American troops were

sent to fight in Europe in the summer of 1918 (when the story is set). Wars fought against other nations necessarily involve attempts to make over other nations in the aggressors image. Prerequisites to such attempts are pride and arrogance: aggressor nation believes it is somehow better than victim nation and that it has the right to change the victim nation

Brotherhood among soldiers fighting in mud-filled trenches is a common theme in war literature LOYALTY IS VITAL!! In The Scarlet Ibis Hurst emphasizes that the wars main legacy in the U.S. was the deaths of many men. Many heroic tales of men risking own lives to save a fallen colleague, or horror stories of wounded men being left to die. Setting and Tone

Setting - North Carolina; cotton farm; Old Woman Swamp Tone authors attitude; conveyed through authors choice of words and details Foreshadowing The use of clues to hint at events that will occur later in a plot. Summer of 1918 was blighted crops withered,

curled up, and died Plant growth was replaced by death and decay Dead birds is bad luckSpecially red dead birds! Allusion A reference in a work of literature to a statement or an event from literature, history, religion, mythology, politics, sports, science, or pop culture.

Three allusions in The Scarlet Ibis Belleau Woods WWI battle sites Hansel and Gretel (bread crumbs) The Bible (Resurrection [Aunt Nicey]) Imagery Descriptive language that deals with any of the five senses (sight, touch, smell, hearing, and taste) and even movement

Helps the reader to create pictures in his/her head The use of figurative language (similes, metaphors, personification) helps create imagery in writing. Examples (Imagery) with a tiny body that was red and shriveled

like an old mans simile (sense of sight) curtains billowed out in the afternoon sea breeze, rustling like Palmetto fronds simile (sight and movement) Even death did not mar its grace, for it lay on the earth like a broken vase of red flowers. simile (sight) The [rain] drops stung my face like nettles. simile (touch)

Symbols A symbol is a thing or idea that stands for something else. 1. grindstone symbolizes Brothers memories 2. Ibis symbolizes Doodle 3. Peacock (in Doodles lie) symbolizes Doodle 4. Old Woman Swamp symbolizes a place of paradise for the boys

5. Red blood, death, bleeding tree, Ibis, Doodle at birth 6. War the war between brothers Theme Central idea or message in a work of fiction Themes are timeless and universal Conflict drives theme lesson learned by the protagonist

Themes are expressed in complete sentences Single words and phrases are big ideas

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