The Layers of the Earth

The Layers of the Earth

The Layers of the Earth The Four Layers The Earth is composed of four different layers. Many geologists believe that as the Earth cooled, the heavier, denser materials sank to the center and the lighter materials rose to the top. Because of this, the crust is made of the

lightest materials (rock- basalts and granites) and the core consists of heavy metals (nickel and iron). The crust is the layer that you live on, and it is the most widely studied and understood. The mantle is

much hotter and has the ability to flow. The Outer and Inner Cores are hotter still with pressures so great that you would be squeezed into a ball smaller than a marble if you were able to go to the center of the Earth!!!!!! The Crust The Earth's Crust is like the shell of an egg. It is very thin in comparison to the other three layers. The crust

is composed of two basic rock types, granite and basalt. The crust is only about 3-5 miles thick under the oceans and about 25 miles thick under the continents. The temperatures of the crust vary from air temperature on top to about 1600 degrees Fahrenheit in the deepest parts of the crust. You can bake a loaf of bread in your oven at 350 degrees Fahrenheit, at 1600 degrees F. rocks begin to melt. Is made up of the

Crust and upper part of the mantle. The hard surface of the Earth More About the Crust The crust of the Earth is broken into many pieces called plates. The plates "float" on the soft, plastic mantle which is located below the crust. These plates usually move along smoothly but sometimes they stick and build up pressure. The pressure builds and the rock bends until it snaps. When this occurs an Earthquake is the result! is the outer layer of the mantle. The Mantle The mantle is the largest layer of the Earth, 1,800

miles thick. The mantle is composed of very hot, dense rock. It is made of oxygen, silicon, and magnesium. This layer of rock even flows like asphalt under a heavy weight. This flow is due to great temperature differences from the bottom to the top of the mantle. The average temperature is 2800 degrees F. The movement of the The Outer Core The core of the Earth is like a ball of very hot metals. The outer core is so hot (9,000 degrees F) that

the metals in it are all in the liquid state. The outer core is located about 1800 miles beneath the crust and is about 1400 miles thick. The Inner Core The inner core of the Earth has temperatures and pressures so great that the metals are squeezed together and are not able to move about like a liquid, but are forced to vibrate in place as a solid.

It is about 4000 miles beneath the crust and is about 800 miles thick One More Look Features of the Earths Crust, Mantle and Core On the Crust section answer the following: Define crust. Describe a time when you interacted with the Earths crust. What are the main elements that make up the Earths crust? Describe the thickness of the crust. What are the two types of crust? What are they mainly composed (made) of? Color the crust Green. On the Mantle section answer the following: Define mantle. What are the main types of rock that compose the crust?

Label the three layers of the mantle properly on the foldable. Describe the Lithosphere. Describe the Asthenosphere Describe the Mesosphere On your model separate the mantle into 3 sections. Color the Lithosphere blue, the asthenosphere brown, and the Mesosphere yellow. Also label them with the correct name. On the Core section answer the following: Define core. What metals is the core mostly made of? What is the thickness of the outer and inner core? Describe the outer core. Describe the inner core. Color the outer core orange Color the inner core red

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