THE ENLIGHTENMENT World History - Ackerman The Enlightenment What does enlightenment mean?? Where did the Enlightenment happen?? All over Western Europe When did the Enlightenment take place?? To give understanding, or be free of
ignorance Mid-1600s to the beginning of the 1800s Why did the Enlightenment happen?? People were tired of traditional ways of life and desperately wanted something Europe in the Enlightenm ent The Enlightenment How did the Enlightenment start?? Englands Glorious Revolution: 1688 Overthrow
the king Declaration of Independence: 1776 Independence American Revolution: 1776 1781 A colony defeats a major European power United States Bill of Rights: 1791 Freedoms from England for every citizen
French Revolution: 1789 Overthrow the king What were some of the major ideas of the Enlightenment?? Human nature Styles of Government good vs. evil Absolutism Enlightened monarchy Democracy
Citizenship Personal rights (liberty, property, speech, religion) Social contract (government and people have to work together) Gender rights The Enlightenment Who was involved??
Thomas Hobbes John Locke Jean-Jacques Rousseau Voltaire Baron de Montesquieu Mary Wollstonecraft The Enlightenment What happened as a result of the Enlightenment? Many governments became more democratic People gained more rights Women gained suffrage the right to vote Slavery was decreased or even stopped Freedom of speech, press, and religion became more common
To reviewHobbes Views on Government: English Civil War convinced him that man was naturally wicked and selfish People should give up their rights to a central ruler in exchange for law and order Social Contract people create government in exchange for safety Government should have the awesome power of a leviathan (ancient sea monster) Best Form of Government: Absolute
Monarchy To reviewVoltaire Views on Government: Distrusted the Church (deceitful), the nobility (corrupt), and the peasants (ignorant and superstitious) Disliked blacks and Jews Distrusted democracy, because it would be empowering the common people, whom he saw as little more than idiots Believed in the absolute freedom of thought and expressionto be able to say or write down ones
beliefs without fear of persecution Believed in an individuals right to choose their own religionor none at all Best Form of Government: Enlightened Monarchy To reviewMontesquieu Views on Government: Believed that the downfall of government was the result of the loss of political liberties Separation of Powers power should be divided between a ruler, a law-making body of people, and the courts Checks and Balances each branch of
government would share power and prevent one person from abusing their authority Best Form of Government: Representative Democracy To reviewJohn Locke Views on Government: Thought that man was naturally reasonable, and that he could be responsible for governing himself Believed that all people are born free and equal with Natural Rights Life,
liberty, and property Purpose of government is to protect these rightsif it does not, the people have the right to overthrow it. Best Form of Government: Democracy Jean-Jacques Rousseau Views on Government People are basically good, but become corrupted by society State of Nature mankind used to live in a primitive, free, and equal societyhowever at some point a few strong individuals forced others to follow their rules Believed that the ideal government was one that was freely formed by the peoplethey agree to give up
some of their freedom in favor of the common good Rousseaus Social Contract: agreement among free individuals to create a society and government Believed in total equality no more titles or class distinctions Best Form of Government: Direct Democracy
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