The Enlightenment

The Enlightenment

The Enlightenment AP World History Notes Chapter 21: Science and Religion (1450-1750) Science and Enlightenment Popular interest in science spread throughout Europe More people used science to explain the universe, not the Church Monarchs set up academies, observatories,

museums Societies like Royal Society of London Science and Enlightenment Long-term outcome of scientific development = enlightenment Enlightenment principles: Human reason could be

used to discover ways in which humankind could govern itself more effectively Belief in the power of knowledge to transform human society Science and Enlightenment Ideas shared by Enlightenment thinkers: Commitment to open-

mindedness & inquiry Critical nature Hostility toward established religious and political authority (though in various degrees) Science and the Enlightenment Central theme of the Enlightenment = the idea of progress Human society =

not fixed by tradition or divine command Can be changed and improved by Spreading Enlightenment Ideas Philosophes = thinkers of the Enlightenment who spread these ideas Paris = active center of ideas Salons = gatherings in the homes of wealthy

patrons --> middle class writers, thinkers, and artists mingled with the nobility Spreading Enlightenment Ideas Wealthy women ran the most popular salons Most famous = Madame de Pompadour

Spreading Enlightenment Ideas 1st Encyclopedia = edited by Denis Diderot Contained articles from about 20 thinkers; illustrations; variety of topics Criticized the Church Diderot and others went to prison Impact on Politics

Scientific thought & method influenced political theories Political philosophers believed natural law could be understood by applying reason Natural law = Impact on Politics Thomas Hobbes vs. John In England at the time =

Locke struggle between those who wanted an absolute monarchy & those that wanted to govern themselves vs. Thomas Hobbes Absolute monarchy = best form of government Violence & disorder = natural to human beings Leviathan = book he wrote about a state in which people lived without government & it

was brutal People dont have the right to rebel against the government or ruler John Locke People are naturally reasonable and moral People have natural rights = rights granted at birth life, liberty,

and property John Locke Two Treatises on Government = essays he wrote that said: 1. People created the government to protect these natural rights 2. Government is responsible to the people 3. If the government doesnt do its job, the people have the right to overthrow it

Influenced Thomas Jefferson when he wrote the Declaration of Independence Montesquieu Wrote The Spirit of the Laws Studied various existing governments Promoted democracy and separation of powers Power should be equal among the branches; checks and balances Influenced the U.S. Constitution

Voltaire Wrote Candide = challenged the idea that all is for the best in the best of all possible worlds Mocked the Church and the royal court Promoted religious freedom, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press Impact on Religion:

Deism Voltaire, along with many other Enlightenment thinkers practiced deism Belief in an abstract and remote Deity Deity created the world, but doesnt intervene in history or tamper with natural law This Deity = like an engineer made the machine, but is now letting it run on its own Women & the

Enlightenment At this time: Ideas of equality and freedom didnt apply to women Women didnt participate in public life like men Women were limited to home and the family Small groups of women began to speak out Mary Wollstonecraft = wrote

Vindication of the Rights of Women = favored equal education for women and men so both could contribute to society Impact on the Arts Classical Movement = art going back to ancient Greek and Roman ideals that represented order and reason Includes art, music, and literature all reflected

simplicity, clarity, and order Famous classical composers = Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Johann Sebastian Bach Opposition to the Enlightenment Some saw this ordered view of the universe as overly rational and lacking emotion Jean-Jacques Rousseau People should rely more

on emotion and instinct and less on book learning Believed people are naturally good, but civilization and institutions corrupt them Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Urged getting rid of civilization and returning to a state of nature The Social Contract = man is born free, and he is everywhere in chains Basis of government = social contract in which people give up their individual rights to the general will of the majority Government BY the people Influenced democracy Immanuel Kant

Argued that reason couldnt answer problems of metaphysics = philosophy that deals with spiritual issues like the existence of God Reality = theres a physical world and a spiritual world and you need different methods for looking at each

one Physical world = knowledge through senses and reason Spiritual world = knowledge through faith and intuition Impact on Religion Many started to reject deism wanted something more emotionally satisfying Religious awakenings shook Protestant Europe and North America Fiery sermons

Public repentance Sharing intense personal experiences of sin and redemption Impact on the Arts Classicism in arts gave way to romanticism = celebrated emotion and the individual Broke free of restraints Famous Romantic

composer = Ludwig von Beethoven Looking Ahead: th Science in the 19 Century AP World History Notes Chapter 16 Religion and Science (1450-1750) Science in the 19 Century Enlightenment th

ideas challenged by: Romanticism Religious enthusiasm Continued development of science Charles Darwin (18091882) Developed theories of natural selection and survival of the fittest All of life is an endless and competitive struggle for survival Constantly generates new

species of plants and animals and throws others into extinction Humans not excluded also the product of evolution operating through natural selection Karl Marx (1818-1883) Argued that human history has been shaped by economic conflict and class struggles Conflicting social and economic classes = push history forward Did not believe in heavenly

intervention, chance, or the divinely endowed powers of kings In favor of socialism = means of production owned and controlled by society, either directly or through the government Goal = wealth is distributed evenly amongst all people Darwin and Marx Like Enlightenment thinkers = Darwin and Marx believed in progress

UNLIKE Enlightenment thinkers = Darwin and Marx argued that conflict and struggle were the motors of progress, not reason and education Sigmund Freud (18561939) Applied scientific techniques to the operation of the human mind and emotions Cast doubt on concept of human rationality His argument = at the core of every person are primal impulses toward sexuality and aggression Impulses = barely kept in check by our social

conscience we derive from civilization Our neuroses = come from the struggle between our irrational drives and our social conscience Examples of neuroses = anxiety, OCD, depression, phobias, personality disorders, etc.

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