Working with Utilities Sean W. Carr, P.E., PMP Co-presenters James Eckert Russell Desalvo, P.E. Draft for Discussion Purposes Only Disclaimer The following presentation is only intended to provide a general overview of the interconnection processes and rules in the State of Illinois and ComEd service territory. If you are not located in ComEds service area, please contact your electric utility for the interconnection processes and rules applicable in your area.
Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 2 Agenda The objective of todays presentation is to provide an overview of the interconnection process. Regulatory rules governing interconnections Types of interconnection applications Customer responsibilities Utility rules, regulations and responsibilities Technical guidelines for interconnections
Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 3 Background Why do we need rules for interconnection? To protect the utility grid To protect other customers connected to the Area Electric Power System (EPS) To provide uniform requirements for all applicants To provide certainty in rules and regulations for customers seeking to interconnect generation. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 4
5 Background Why do we need rules and regulations governing interconnection of generation to the utility system? Analogy: The electric utility grid is like a super highway with many on and off ramps. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 6
Background cont. If we dont have rules and regulations governing access to the on and off ramps of the super highway what happens? There is uncontrolled chaos and others can be impacted by these events! Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 7 Background cont.
When the rules and regulations work everything moves along in a controlled and predictable manner. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference Regulatory Background Prior to 2008, generation interconnection requests were governed by individual utility requirements. ComEd previously published the Blue Book which dictated interconnection requirements for the ComEd system. In 2008, Illinois Administrative Code Title 83 Parts 446/467 were enacted which provide uniform
regulatory requirements for distribution interconnection requests. The Blue Book is still useful for providing details on technical requirements. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 8 Reasons for Customer Generation Our customers may choose to install their own generation for many different reasons. Some of the most common reasons include: Backup generation Cogeneration installations Intentional exporters and/or Independent Power Producers (IPPs) Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference
9 Type of Customer Generation Backup generation: A customer may decide to install backup generation to mitigate the impact of interruptions of utility service to his or her business or home. Many of these installations are open transition on loss-of-source (think of a homeowners garage generator with a manual throwover), and have no impact on the distribution system. Others may be open transition on loss-of-source, and closed transition on return-togrid. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 10 Types of Customer Generation Cogeneration installations: A customer may elect to install Distributed Generation facility equipment designed to continuously parallel with the utility grid. Examples include combined-cycle cogeneration (for example,
where waste heat from the generation prime mover is used for industrial processes or plant heating, or where waste heat from industrial processes is used for power generation), peak shaving (the use of cogeneration to reduce both purchased power and to mitigate peak load charges), and many forms of green generation such as photovoltaic (PV) installations and small wind turbine installations. By their nature, these facilities operate as closed transition facilities. While these facilities may, at times, export net power, they are generally not considered to be significant net exporters, although larger installations may have that capability if native load is significantly less than the generator nameplate capacity. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 11 Types of Customer Generation Intentional exporters and/or Independent Power Producers (IPPs): Distributed generation facilities that
intentionally export significant net power to the retail or wholesale markets. Examples include landfill gas generation facilities, medium-scale wind farms (generally less than 50 MW on the 34.5 kV system), and (future) large photovoltaic installations. These tend to be among the larger Distributed Generation facilities connected to the distribution system, are generally capable of islanding significant external load, and may be capable of providing significant fault current. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 12 13 Types of Interconnection Applications Distribution ICC Title 83 Part 466/467
Interconnection is 34kV or lower Size is typically <20MVA May or not intentionally export power to the utility grid Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference Wholesale PJM or Regional Transmission Operator (RTO) Interconnection may be at distribution or transmission voltages Size may range from kVA to hundreds of MVA Typically sell power into
wholesale market ICC Title 83 Part 466 Section 466.10 Scope The Illinois Distributed Generation Interconnection Standard applies to generation facilities operated in parallel with an electric public utility distribution company in Illinois and meeting the following criteria: a) The nameplate capacity of the distributed generation facility is equal to or less than 10 MVA; and b) The distributed generation facility is not subject to the interconnection requirements of either the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) or the applicable Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) (either Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (MISO) or PJM Interconnection, LLC (PJM)). Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 14
Interconnection Application Levels For State-jurisdictional DG interconnection requests, Title 83 part 466 has established four interconnection levels, generally linked to the DG capacity: Level 1: 10kVA or less, lab-certified inverter-based DG facility Level 2: 2MVA or less, lab-certified DG facility Level 3: 10MVA or less, non-exporting Level 4: 10MVA or less that do not qualify for Levels 1 through 3 Note that there are additional conditions within the statute that may affect the assigned level. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference
15 ICC Part 467 Section 467.10 Scope The Illinois Large Distributed Generation Interconnection Standard applies to any generation facility operated in parallel with an electric public utility distribution company in Illinois and whose nameplate capacity is greater than 10 MVA (large distributed generation facility), provided that the distributed generation facility is not subject to the interconnection requirements of either the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) or the applicable Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) (either Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (MISO) or PJM Interconnection, LLC (PJM). Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference
16 ICC Part 466/467 Application Processes Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 17 Types of Interconnection Studies There are three types of interconnection studies with varying levels of detail. Interconnection Feasibility Study Interconnection Impact Study Interconnection Facilities Study Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 18
Types of interconnection studies What does the utility consider important when performing interconnection studies for the Area EPS (Electric Power System) Short circuit equipment duty ratings Equipment thermal limitations Voltage regulation System load flows
Feeder hosting capacity Flicker and power quality Power system protection System impacts/upgrades to accommodate interconnection Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 19 Types of interconnection studies cont. Interconnection Feasibility Study The interconnection feasibility study report must provide the following information: Identification of any equipment short circuit capability limits exceeded as a result of the interconnection, Identification of any thermal overload or voltage limit violations resulting from the interconnection and
A description and non-binding estimated cost of facilities required to interconnect the distributed generation facility to EDC's electric distribution system as required under Section 466.120(e)(1). Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 20 Types of Interconnection Studies cont. Interconnection System Impact Study The interconnection system impact study report shall provide the following information: Identification of any equipment short circuit capability limits exceeded as a result of the interconnection, Identification of any thermal overload or voltage limit violations resulting from the interconnection, Identification of any instability or inadequately damped
response to system disturbances resulting from the interconnection, and Description and non-binding estimated cost of facilities required to interconnect the distributed generation facility to EDC's electric distribution system and to address the identified short circuit, thermal overload, voltage and instability issues. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 21 Types of Interconnection Studies cont. Interconnection Facilities Study An interconnection facilities study report shall provide: a description, estimated cost of distribution upgrades, schedule for required facilities to interconnect the distributed generation facility to ComEd's electric distribution system; and
shall address all issues identified in the interconnection system impact study (or identified in this study if the system impact study is combined herein). Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 22 Customer Responsibilities What do you need to provide the utility? Completed interconnection application and fees. Technical data Generator nameplate data One-line diagram Three-line diagram of instrumentation and relaying Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference
23 Costs for Interconnection As a regulated utility interconnection rules require that ComEd and any other utility provide open and equal access to all customer who request interconnection. This requires providing the least-cost option for the interconnection of customer generation. Regulatory requirements mandate that any customer interconnecting to the utility system are provided with a good faith cost estimate of the costs required for ComEd to accommodate the interconnection, but customers are still required to pay the actual costs required for interconnection. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference
24 Technical Requirements ComEd technical review and requirements are intended for the protection of the ComEd system only. This does not guarantee adequate protection or performance of customer owned equipment. ComEd and utilities strive to work with interconnection customers to provide a safe and reliable system. However, ComEd review does not imply either implicit or explicit approval of a customer system. Customers should design all system to applicable standards, codes and best engineering practices. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 25
Overview of Protection Requirements Level 1 and Level 2 Applications Lab certified equipment Protection is built in and has been tested as an assembly by a NRTL to meet applicable standard as defined in ICC requirements Lab-certified interconnection equipment: equipment that has been type-tested by a nationally-recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) to requirements set forth in Title 83 part 466 Section 466.70 (which includes, among other things, verified compliance with UL 1741, IEEE 1547, and the 2008 National Electrical Code). Generally, interconnection protection that has been type tested and certified for a certain class of interconnection installations. A Distributed Generation Facility that meets certain requirements may install lab-certified interconnection equipment which, by law, shall be sufficient interconnection relay protection. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference
26 Overview of Protection Requirements cont. What does the utility consider important in determining requirements to protect the Area EPS (Electric Power System)? Protection from customer generation during faulted and open circuit conditions. Protection during system disturbances causing frequency or voltage deviations. Anti-islanding protection (back-feed of other customer loads during loss of utility source) Security and reliability of the customer protective relaying scheme. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference
27 Overview of Protection Requirements cont. What protection methods are employed to provide protection of Area EPS: Current-Used to provide protection against fault and overload conditions Voltage-Used to provide protection against faults and other abnormal normal system conditions. Frequency-Used to provide protection against load swings and other abnormal system conditions. Impedance-Used to provide distance protection of lines Power-Used to detection abnormal power flows Communications-Used to add security to protective relay elements and schemes. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 28
Relevant ANSI/IEEE Devices (typically used)
2: Timer 21: Distance Relay 25: Synchronizing Relay or Synchronism Check 27: Under Voltage 32: Reverse Power Relay 50FD: Phase Instantaneous Overcurrent Fault Detector 51: Time Overcurrent 51G: Ground Time Overcurrent 51N: Neutral Overcurrent 51V: Voltage Restrained/Controlled Time Overcurrent 59: Overvoltage 59G: Zero-Sequence Overvoltage (detects phase-ground faults) 67 Directional Overcurrent
79: Reclosing 81O: Over-frequency 81U: Under-frequency 86: Lock Out Relay (LOR) 87: Current Differential Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 29 Other protection considerations The utility may have specific requirements for transformer or grounding connections which can impact system design and protection. ComEd typically requires that transformer connections to the EPS be delta connected.
This eliminates third harmonics and zero sequence currents which may impact relay sensitivity. Other utilities may require wye connected transformers. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 30 Other protection considerations cont. ComEd and utilities will typical provide customer with a Relay Functional Requirement Specification (RFRS) The RFRS contains protective relay functions that must be implemented in as a part of the customer interconnection requirements The utility will specify the requirements however the
customer is solely responsible for their design and implementation The utility will review, but does not approve customer protection settings and schemes. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 31 Other protection considerations cont. Utility protection requirements will vary depending on the size and type of interconnection. Transmission level interconnections require more complex protection.
Typically communications enhanced protection Redundant system protection High speed protection schemes SCADA data Distribution level interconnections typically require less complex protection schemes 34kV system is considered sub-transmission and typically relayed using Dev. 21 distance protection Typically follow IEEE Std. 1547. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 32 Other protection consideration cont. ComEd and other utilities require that customer
relay protection needs to be secure, yet capable of reliably responding to abnormal system conditions. Customer relay protection needs to be able to distinguish between load and fault currents at low magnitude levels Dev 67 and Dev. 51V may not be able to reliably distinguish between these two. Dev 21. provides more security and can be blinded to not trip for loading issues. Customer relay protection settings should be designed to coordinate with utility system protection settings This includes time delays to coordinate with back-up protection Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 33 Other protection considerations cont.
Communications based protection schemes can enhance security by preventing over tripping of customer relays. Control power for relays and tripping interrupting devices should be designed to trip prior to loss. All protection systems need to be tested and commissioned. ComEd and other utilities typically require that customers perform witness testing prior to final approval for interconnection. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 34 Witness Testing Guidelines ComEd and other utilities will typically require that customers perform witness testing to functionally demonstrate that all ComEd or utility protective device
functions have been implemented and operate as designed and intended. Customer is responsible for performing the testing and the utility will provide verification. Customer must employ a competent testing agent capable of performing the required testing. Customer will need to provide documentation that the installation has been inspected and approved by the AHJ were applicable. Upon completion of witness testing the utility will certify that the installation meets the certificate of compliance for interconnection. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 35 Conclusions ComEd is required to follow regulatory rules for
interconnection applications. If you are a ComEd customer, contact ComEd to provide specific interconnection requirements in initial design and development phase. Regulatory requirements mandate that all applicants have equal and open access. ComEd is required to provide the lowest feasible cost option for interconnection. Customers are responsible for all costs associated with the interconnection. Customers are responsible for ensuring adequate design and protection of customer equipment. Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference 36 Questions 37
Thank you for your time and attention! Questions? Copyright ComEd 2016 MCA/IEEE Conference
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