DOE Perspectives CSS2013 Snowmass on the Mississippi Minneapolis, Minnesota July 29 2013 Jim Siegrist Associate Director Office of High Energy Physics Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy Outline Program Overview Budget Program Planning : Snowmass and P5 Next Steps and Take-Away 2 PROGRAM OVERVIEW 3 HEP Physics and Technology Experimental The Energy Frontier Origins of Mass Simulation Theory
Matter/Anti-matter Asymmetry Origin of Universe Along Three Paths Unification of Forces New Physics Beyond the Standard Model Neutrino Physics Accelerators Proton Decay The Intensity Frontier Detectors Dark matter Dark energy Cosmic Particles The Cosmic Frontier Computing Enabled by
Advanced Technologies Physics Frontiers From Deep Underground to the Tops of Mountains, HEP pushes the Frontiers of Research RESEARCH AT THE ENERGY FRONTIER HEP supports research where powerful accelerators such as the LHC are used to create new particles, reveal their interactions, and investigate fundamental forces, and where experiments such as ATLAS and CMS explore RESEARCH AT INTENSITY FRONTIER these phenomena. Reactor and beam-based neutrino physics experiments such as Daya Bay, NOvA and LBNE may ultimately answer some of the fundamental questions of our time: why does the Universe seem to be composed of matter and not anti-matter? RESEARCH AT THE COSMIC FRONTIER Through ground-based telescopes, space missions, and deep underground detectors, research at the cosmic frontier aims to explore dark energy and dark matter, which together comprise approximately 95% of the universe. THEORY AND COMPUTATION The interplay between theory, computation, and experiment is essential to the lifeblood of High Energy Physics. Computational sciences and resources enhance theory and enable data analysis, detector and accelerator development.
ACCELERATOR SCIENCE Supports R&D at national labs and universities in beam physics, novel acceleration concepts, beam instrumentation and control, high gradient research, particle and RF sources, superconducting magnets and materials, and superconducting RF technology. Many Physics Topics to Ponder Maybe just a coincidence ? But dismissing striking features of the data as coincidence has historically not been a winning strategy... Joseph Lykken DOE OHEP, April 1, 2013 6 The Common Goal A realistic, coherent, shared plan for US HEP Enabling world-leading facilities/experiments in the US while recognizing the global context and the priorities of other regions Recognizing the centrality of Fermilab while maintaining a healthy US research ecosystem that has essential roles for both universities and multipurpose labs Articulating both the value of basic research and the broader impacts of HEP Maintaining a balanced and diverse program that can deliver research results consistently 7
HEP BUDGET 8 HEP Budget Overview FY2014 budget philosophy was to enable new world-leading HEP capabilities in the U.S. through investments on all three frontiers Accomplished through ramp-down of Research, and Operations of existing projects When we were not able to fully implement this approach (i.e., start new projects), converted planned project funds to R&D: Research Projects Research Therefore, the FY14 Request shows increases for Research that are due to this added R&D bump, while Construction/project funding is only slightly increased In the interim (since submission of FY14 Request), actual FY13 Research funding also increased because of inability to get projects started Initial FY14 plan for Research will be down more than the originally advertised 2-3% relative to FY13 Some details in following slides Impact of these actions: Several new efforts are delayed: LHC detector upgrades, LBNE, 2nd Generation Dark Matter detectors, DESI US leadership/partnership capabilities will be challenged by others Workforce reductions at universities and labs Key areas in FY2014 Request Maintaining forward progress on new projects via Construction and Research (incl. R&D for projects) funding lines Recent Funding Trends 70.0%
Ramp up ILC and SRF R&D programs Trading Projects for more Research 60.0% 50.0% Researc h Facilitie s Projects Other 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% FY 2014 FY 2013 FY 2012 FY 2011 FY 2010
FY 2009 FY 2008 FY 2007 FY 2006 FY 2005 FY 2004 FY 2003 FY 2002 FY 2001 FY 2000 FY 1999 FY 1998 FY 1997 FY 1996 0.0% In the late 90s the fraction of the budget devoted to projects was about 20%.
Progress in many fields require new investments to produce new capabilities. Many projects started since 2006 are coming to completion. New investments are needed to continue US leadership in well defined research areas. Possibilities for future funding growth are weak. Must make do with what we have. One Possible Future Scenario Trading Research for more Projects About 20% (relative) reduction in Research fraction over ~5 years In order to address priorities, this will not be applied equally across Frontiers This necessarily implies reductions in scientific staffing Some can migrate to Projects but other transitions are more difficult We have requested Labs to help manage this transition as gracefully as possible FY 2014 High Energy Physics Budget (Dollars in thousands) Description Energy Frontier Exp. Physics FY 2012 Actual FY 2013 July Plan 159,997 FY 2014 Request
148,164 Explanation of Change [FY14 Request vs. FY12 Actual] 154,687 Ramp-down of Tevatron Research 283,675 287,220 271,043 Completion of NOnA (MIE), partially offset by Fermi Ops Cosmic Frontier Exp. Physics 71,940 78,943 99,080 Ramp-up of LSST-Camera Theoretical and Computational Physics
66,965 66,398 62,870 Continuing reductions in Research 157,106 131,885 122,453 2,850 3,132 9,931 Completion of ILC R&D FY14 includes Stewardship-related Research 0 0 21,457 28,000
11,781 35,000 Total, High Energy Physics: 770,533(a) 727,523 (b,c) Ref: Office of Science (SC): 4,873,634 4,621,075 (c) 5,152,752 Intensity Frontier Exp. Physics Advanced Technology R&D Accelerator Stewardship SBIR/STTR Construction (Line Item) Mostly Mu2e; no LBNE ramp-up wrt FY13: Up +3.6% after SBIR correction 776,521 wrt FY12: Down -2% after SBIR correction SBIR = Small Business Innovation Research STTR = Small Business Technology Transfer The FY 2012 Actual is reduced by $20,327,000 for SBIR/STTR.
(b) The FY 2013 July Plan is reduced by $20,791,000 for SBIR/STTR. (a) (c) Reflects sequestration. Major Item of Equipment (MIE) Issues We were not able to implement [most] new MIE-fabrication starts in the FY14 request Brookhaven National Laboratory Muon g-2 Ring: On Barge, Departing Southern Long Island June 25, 2013 On Barge, Through Joliet Locks; July 20, 2013 Muon g-2 experiment is the only new start in HEP that was not requested in FY13 LSST-Camera and Belle-II, which didnt receive approval in FY13, are requested again in FY14 Entering Fermilab-site, Eola Rd. Gate; July 26, 2013 This upsets at least 2 major features of our budget strategy: Strategic plan: Trading Research for Projects
Implementation of facilities balanced across Frontiers FY 2014 Request Crosscuts By Function SBIR/ STTR $21M Technology Research $112M By Frontier Facilities $287M MIE $39M MIEs $39M EPP Research $272M *Includes Other Project Costs (R&D) for LBNE Accelerator Stewardship $10M
Intensity $261M Construction $45M Advanced Tech $122M Energy $155M SBIR/STTR Theory Theory $63M $21M $63M **Includes $15.9M Other Facility Support *Includes Other Project Costs (R&D) for LBNE HEP Physics Funding by Activity FY 2012 FY 2013 FY 2014 Funding (in $K) Actual July Plan Request Explanation of Change wrt FY12 Research 391,329 362,284 383,609 Reduction mostly ILC R&D
Facility Operations NOnA ops start-up and (a) and Expt Support 249,241 265,305 271,561 Infrastructure improvements Projects 129,963 99,934 99,894 Energy Frontier 0 3,000 0 Phase-1 LHC detector upgrades NOnA ramp-down, Intensity Frontier 86,570 62,794 37,000 start Muon g-2 Cosmic Frontier Other Construction (Line Item) SBIR/STTR TOTAL, HEP (a) (b) Includes $1,563K GPE.
We are trying to follow the reconfiguration [phased] plan for LBNE, though it has hit some snags Out-year budgets are challenging Some members of the community objected that the phased LBNE was not what the previous P5 (or they) had in mind The plan, as it currently stands: Use time before baselining to recruit partners (international and domestic) that expand scope and science reach We also take note of the House language on LBNE: The Committee recognizes the importance of this project to maintaining American leadership in the intensity frontier and to basic science discovery of neutrino and standard model physics. However, the Committee also recognizes that LBNE construction must be affordable under a flat budget scenario. As such, the Committee supports the Office of Sciences challenge to the High Energy Physics community to identify an LBNE construction approach that avoids large out-year funding spikes or to identify viable alternatives with similar scientific benefits at significantly lower cost. http://xkcd.com/1116/ STRATEGIC PLANNING AND COMMUNITY PROCESS 5/23/2013 17 Strategic Planning The HEP strategic plan based on the previous HEPAP/P5 study puts in place a comprehensive program across the three frontiers. In five years,
NOvA, Belle-II, g-2 will be running on the Intensity Frontier. Mu2e will be in commissioning preparing for first data. The CMS and ATLAS detector upgrades will be installed at CERN. DES will have completed its science program and a new mid-scale spectroscopic instrument and DM-G2 should begin operation The two big initiatives, LSST and LBNE, will be well underway. Need to start planning now for what comes next. We have been engaging with the DPF community planning process that culminates in this meeting Will set up a prioritization process (a new P5) using that input. Customized Implementation Strategies Energy Frontier US has a leading role in LHC physics collaborations but does not own the facility The issue is the scope and scale of US involvement. Requires US-CERN negotiation. Could also be true for Japanese-hosted ILC Intensity Frontier US is the world leader and needs new facilities and/or upgrades of existing facilities to maintain its position Has the potential to attract new partners to US-led projects Portfolio of experiments and science case is diverse. This complicates the case. The
scale of the projected investments is a big challenge Cosmic Frontier US HEP has a leading role in a competitive, multidisciplinary environment HEP component of the physics case is simple and compelling. Key issues are what levels of precision and sensitivity can be achieved and scientifically justified DOE is a technology enabler, not a facilities provider (see NSF, NASA) Analogous to LHC but the HEP physics goals are not those of the facility owners DOE supports particle physics goals and HEP-style collaborations Astronomy and astrophysics is not in our mission nor our modus operandi Snowmass / P5 Interface What we hope to see from Snowmass: What are the most compelling science questions in HEP that can be addressed in the next 10 to 20 years and why What are the primary experimental approaches that can be used to address them? Are they likely to answer the question(s) in a definitive manner or will follow-on experiments be needed? What are the hard questions (science, technical, cost) that a given experiment or facility needs to answer to respond to perceived limitations in its proposal? These topics should be covered in the Snowmass reports and white papers. P5 will use these reports and white papers as its starting point. We expect to have the P5 panel selected and a formal charge issued by the time of the September HEPAP meeting Goals for the P5 Process
DOE/NSF agree on the goals: The P5 process takes the science vision of the community and turns it into plan that is feasible and executable over a 10-20 year timescale HEP MUST have a planning and prioritization process that the community can stand behind and support once the P5 report is complete. We also need a process that repeats at more less regular intervals (5 years?) We also want to allow for less comprehensive updates and modest course corrections to the plan along the way (a la P5 updates in 2009, 2010) Key elements and outcomes envisioned for the P5 process: Revisit the questions we use to describe the field (eg. Quantum Universe, updated and corrected) Decide on the science and project priorities within budget guidance (in detail for the next 10 years, in broad outline beyond that) Crisply describe the impact of HEP research on other sciences and society Build on the investment in Snowmass process and outcomes What P5 Is (and is Not) P5 will prioritize HEP projects over a 10-20 year timeframe within reasonable budget assumptions and position the U.S. to a be a leader in some (but not all) areas of HEP. This will include an explicit discussion of the necessity (or not) of domestic HEP facilities in order to maintain such a world leadership position. Necessarily this will involve consideration of technical feasibility as well as plausible timescales and resources for future projects. There will be budget fixed points for projects already under construction and
other prior commitments The charge to P5 will NOT include explicit examination of Agency review processes Roles, responsibilities and funding of labs versus universities Relative funding of experimental HEP vs theory vs technology R&D However we expect some of these issues to be addressed by HEPAP in the future. Working with HEPAP Chair to identify the key topics to review We welcome input and discussion on what you think are the pressing structural issues for HEP DRAFT New P5 Process (for discussion) Based on adopting best practices from our colleagues in Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, we are considering the following enhancements to the P5 process for this iteration: Much discussion about a greatly enlarged P5 panel (~50 members). Previous P5 had 21 members Have received a lot of feedback, both pro and con. HEPAP and P5 Chairs to decide. Nominations have been sought from HEP and related communities through a Dear Colleague letter Make maximum use of community input, do not reinvent Snowmass
Snowmass output (reports, white papers) as a starting point, but P5 may solicit additional material as needed Public interim report before final version is submitted to HEPAP Several town meetings as public forums not only to advocate for particular science opportunities but also to prioritize Organized around science topics DRAFT New P5 Process (continued) To better focus the P5 process and minimize the burden on the panel, we are considering breaking up the important supporting work: Working P5 subgroup for updating the Quantum Universe questions in parallel with science priority discussion Two separate (non-P5) working groups: Science Connections, highlighting the scientific areas where HEP advances, informs, and benefits from other DOE/SC programs. See e.g., 1998 National Academy EPP Decadal Survey (Winstein) Co-chairs Shamit Kachru (Stanford/SLAC) and Curt Callan (Princeton) HEP Impact, developing a potential list of messages for the U.S. HEP community to use in communicating the broad impact of HEP in technology,
workforce development, and other societal benefits Interested parties are strongly encouraged to engage with the Education and Outreach group at Snowmass These groups would produce short reports to HEPAP/P5 by the end of the calendar year in order to provide timely input that can be integrated by P5 DRAFT New P5 Timeline May: DOE/NSF agree on outlines of P5 process and inform community via presentations and dear colleague letter June: Call for nominations to P5 July: Agencies draft P5 charge. HEPAP Chair reviews P5 nominations and begins selection process August : Snowmass meeting. P5 charge sent to HEPAP Chair. Sept : HEPAP Meeting. Snowmass reports issued. P5 charge and membership formally announced. Timeline for P5 meetings announced. Fall 2013 : Town Meetings (4 or 5, venues and topics TBD) Winter/Spring 2014 : P5 meetings (phone in and face to face) Spring/Summer 2014 : P5 report(s) due. Exact dates and deliverables to be spelled out in P5 charge. Draft Proposed Town Meetings(1) First meeting on the overall strategy, questions to describe the field, and discussion of how technology development priorities and other crosscutting issues should be covered in the P5 report Start with the current P5 plan and possible alternatives as well as global strategy considerations. Need to understand where we are now and recognize much has changed since the last P5 does this also change our strategy? Does this change how we think about the field? Open discussion of issues so the community can better understand the constraints,
and hopefully reach broader agreement. Fundamental questions for the field and how to unify/connect the Frontiers framework will also be discussed Input from the Theory community will be especially important in this area Technology support will NOT be a main focus of P5, but the panel will benefit from wisdom in the community in this area. E.g., Do we have a coherent technology R&D plan that dovetails with the science opportunities? If not, how do we get there? Note that Accelerator Stewardship is an Office of Science wide initiative managed by the HEP office, so should be discussed for information, but will not be modified by P5. Draft Proposed Town Hall Meetings(2) Subsequent meetings will focus on open community discussion of project priorities. Meetings organized around science questions or Frontiers. The expected outcome will be advice to P5 on a prioritized project list by broad science thrust. Each meeting will focus on one set of science thrusts, not flaws in the plans of others. The process will be moderated by P5 itself, and based on input from Snowmass whitepapers ; project whitepapers updated from the HEPAP facility panel; or just for this purpose. P5 will see to it that the meetings to not descend into a shouting contest The budget guidance to P5 will be public as part of its Charge, so proponents will have a good idea of the total budget envelope that can be considered and can debate what is a reasonable budget profile. Based on the results of the first 4 meetings, we will consider a 5 th meeting to wrap up and discuss any broad matters arising. NEXT STEPS
28 Next Steps Engage your colleagues! Send any P5 nominations to HEPAP Chair ASAP The agencies welcome input from the community on the shape of the P5 process. We have until the end of Snowmass to modify our P5 plans The agencies plan a series of talks at the Snowmass meetings to solicit further input and discuss programmatic details See program for various PI Meetings in parallel sessions You are welcome to attend any or all (not just for PIs, not just for adherents of particular Frontiers) The agencies expect that our community is capable of professional behavior, and look forward to vigorous and open discussions of our challenges and opportunities. Take-Away Messages The U.S. HEP program is following the strategic plan laid out by the previous HEPAP/P5 studies Though some of the boundary conditions have changed, we are still trying to implement that plan within the current constraints FY2014 Request generally supports this, though funding constraints have led to delays in some key projects Need to maintain progress with projects currently on the books Working to attract partnerships that will extend the science impact Actively engaged with community in developing new strategic plan
Increased emphasis on broader impacts via accelerator stewardship Our only hope to maintain leadership in the long-term is to out-innovate the competition, and exploit unique capabilities Focus on areas where US can have leadership High-risk, high-impact as opposed to incremental advances Note this not an either/or proposition, we need both with appropriate balance 30 BACKUP Note on HEP Research Funding The FY 2014 Request for HEP Research was $384M, about a 6% increase compared to FY 2013, but $26 million of this is planned to go to R&D for Dark Matter G2, DESI, and LHC upgrades. Our current FY 2014 planning is based on the House markup of the Energy and Water Appropriation which is overall slightly below the Request The House mark directed HEP to move $8 million to LBNE PED, $2 million to SURF, and lower the overall HEP budget by $4 million. The choice was made to take all of these reductions from Research due to our priority to increase Project spending. These two effects reduce Research to $343M, about a 5% reduction w.r.t. FY 2013 At the beginning of the year it is necessary to hold back funds for decisions to be made later in the year, such as the Early Career Program and other needs. This results in an approximately 6% reduction relative to FY 2013 for the initial distribution
of funds. This is the average effect on initial HEP research funding. There is some small variation in the impact to individual HEP subprograms, and program managers have the authority to provide more or less than the average reduction based on program priorities and the results of merit review. The House mark is a budget indicator but not the final word on FY 2014. When Congress passes a budget, there could be either an increase or a decrease in HEP research funding. HEP Physics MIE Funding Funding (in $K) MIEs FY 2012 FY 2013 FY 2014 Actual July Request 55,770 45,687 39,000 Description Intensity Frontier 41,240 19,480
5,850 9,000 Muon g-2 Experiment 1,500 1,500 0 Cosmic Frontier Cosmic Frontier TOTAL MIEs NOnA ramp-down MicroBooNE Reactor Neutrino Detector 0 at Daya Bay 5,500 8,000 22,000 55,770
45,687 39,000 HAWC Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Camera HEP Physics Construction Funding Funding (in $K) Construction - TPC Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment FY 2012 FY 2013 FY 2014 Actual July Request 53,000 28,388 45,000 21,000 17,888 10,000 TEC 4,000
35,000 OPC 8,000 2,500 0 TPC 32,000 10,500 35,000 Muon to Electron Conversion Experiment TEC = Total Estimated Cost (refers to Capital Equipment expenses) OPC = Other Project Costs TPC = Total Project Cost HEP Project Status Subprogram INTENSITY FRONTIER Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) Muon g-2 Mu2e
Next Generation B-Factory Detector Systems (BELLE-II) NuMI Off-Axis Electron Neutrino Appearance Expt (NOnA) Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment (MicroBooNE) Main INjector ExpeRiment for n-A (MINERnA) Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment ENERGY FRONTIER LHC ATLAS Detector (Phase-1) Upgrade LHC CMS Detector (Phase-1) Upgrade COSMIC FRONTIER Dark Matter (DM-G2) Mid-Scale Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (MS-DESI) Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Dark Energy Survey (DES) ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY R&D Accelerator Project for the Upgrade of the LHC (APUL) Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) TPC ($M) CD Status CD Date TBD 40 249 16 278 19.9 16.8 35.5
CD-1 CD-0 CD-1 CD-3a CD-3b CD-3b CD-4 CD-4b December 10, 2012 September 18, 2012 July 11, 2012 November 8, 2012 October 29, 2009 March 29, 2012 June 28, 2010 [Finished] August 20, 2012 [Finished] TBD TBD CD-0 CD-0 September 18, 2012 September 18, 2012 TBD TBD 173 35.1
CD-0 CD-0 CD-1 CD-4 September 18, 2012 September 18, 2012 April 12, 2012 June 4, 2012 [Finished] 11.5 27.2 14.5 CD-2/3 CD-4 CD-4 July 29, 2011 January 17, 2013 [Finished] January 31, 2012 [Finished] Major Recommendations of 2008 Advisory Panel (P5) The panel recommends that the US maintain a leadership role in world-wide particle physics. The panel recommends a strong, integrated research program at the three frontiers of the field: the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier and the Cosmic Frontier. The panel recommends support for the US LHC program, including US involvement in the planned detector and accelerator upgrades. (highest priority)
The panel recommends a world-class neutrino program as a core component of the US program, with the long-term vision of a large detector in the proposed DUSEL and a high-intensity neutrino source at Fermilab. The panel recommends funding for measurements of rare processes to an extent depending on the funding levels available (Mu2e) The panel recommends support for the study of dark matter and dark energy as an integral part of the US particle physics program. The panel recommends a broad strategic program in accelerator R&D, including work , along with support of basic accelerator science. These are still relevant, and this is still the plan. Joint Agency Letter to the Community Fundamentally[planning] is a multi-step process with several important milestones over the coming year, and each step will inform and prepare for the next. 1. HEP Facilities Subpanel: Advise DOE/SC mgmt. on the scientific impact and technical maturity of planned and proposed SC Facilities, in order to develop a coherent 10-yr SC facilities plan Subpanel can add or subtract from initial facilities list Does not exclude/pre-empt later additions 2. DPF/CSS2013 Snowmass: community identifies compelling HEP science opportunities over an approximately 20 year time frame. Not a prioritization but can make scientific judgments
3. HEPAP/P5: Advises agencies on new strategic plan and priorities for US HEP in various funding scenarios, using input from #1 and 2 above (among others) 37
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