ELECTRICKERY Presented by Have you ever stuck a balloon to the wall after rubbing it on your head? Has your jumper ever made crackling noises when you took it off? Have you ever got an electric shock off your door knob? Have you ever seen lightening? All these things happen
because of Static Electricity What is Static Electricity? Static electricity occurs when there is a build up of electric charge on the surface of a material. It is called static electricity because the charges dont move. The electricity we use everyday
involves moving charges. What is charge? To understand charge we have to look at things on an extremely small scale. We have to try and understand things that we cant even see with the most powerful microscope. Atoms! The atom
Everything we see around us everyday is made of atoms. We cant see individual atoms because they are so small. In fact the diameter of an atom is about 0.0000000001m In the air in your classroom there are about 1500000000000000000000000000 atoms. What is inside the atom? The
atom is made of 3 sorts of particles. The electron The proton The neutron We can imagine each as a tiny little ball. Inside an atom The protons and neutrons sit
together in a lump in the middle called the nucleus. The electrons orbit around the nucleus, a bit like the planets orbiting the Sun. Most of the atom is empty space if atoms were the size of football fields,
the nucleus would be a grain of sand in the middle and the electrons would be orbiting around the edge. . Charge The electron is negatively charged. The proton is positively charged. The neutron has no charge, it is neutral. Charge Most
things have the same number of electrons and protons in them. They dont have any overall charge. If this isnt true interesting things can happen. How do charges behave? What do you know about magnets? 2
north poles will repel each other, but a north and a south put together will attract one another. opposites attract, likes repel. How do charges behave? Exactly the same thing happens with charges. 2 positive charges put together will repel each other. Put a positive charge near a negative
charge and they will attract each other. A charged object may even attract a neutral one. Static electricity Static electricity is caused when certain materials are rubbed against each other. Electrons can be rubbed off one material and on to another. The material that has got extra electrons is now negatively charged
The material which has lost electrons is positively charged. - + - + - + + - - -
+ + + - + + - +
- - + - + - + + - - -
+ + + - + + - + -
- + - + - + + - - - +
+ + - + + - + -
- + - + - + + - - - + +
+ - + + - + - - + - +
- + + - - - + +
+ - + + - + - - + - +
- + - + - + + +
- + + - + - Static electricity It is this imbalance of positive and
negative charges that causes: Balloons to stick to walls. Your hair to stand on end when brush your hair on a dry day. And the electric shock you sometimes get from the door handle. Your Turn to Experiment Lightning What causes lightning? Lightning
is actually just static electricity on a much larger scale. The rubbing is caused by air moving around In thunderclouds bottom is usually negative and top is positive. Thunder When
the lightning flash happens it heats the air to a temperature 5 times hotter than the surface of the sun. This causes nearby air to expand and vibrate forming the sound we hear as thunder. Interesting facts Lightning
bolts can travel at speeds of up to 60,000 miles per second. Every second around 100 bolts of lightning strike the Earth. One lightning bolt has enough electricity to power 200,000 homes. You are more likely to be struck by lightning than be eaten by a shark. Some myths Lightning never strikes in the same place
twice. False, the Empire State Building is reportedly struck 100 times a year. Wearing rubber shoes will protect me in a thunder storm. False, Lighting is too powerful to be stopped by half an inch of rubber or several hundred feet of rubber for that matter.
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