Spinal Cord Organization - Medical University of South Carolina

Spinal Cord Organization - Medical University of South Carolina

Spinal Cord Organization January 9, 2008 Spinal Cord 31 segments terminates at L1-L2 special components - conus medularis

- cauda equina no input from the face Spinal Cord, Roots & Nerves Dorsal root Ventral root

Spinal nerve Dorsal Root Ganglion Cell bodies of 1st order sensory neurons Afferent Spinal Cord Cross Section Dorsal root

sensory afferent Ventral root motor efferent Cross Section of Spinal Cord

White matter peripheral Central canal Gray matter central

Volume of Gray & White Matter Gray matter enlarges at cervical and lumbar regions. White matter increases at higher levels of the cord. Central Gray Matter Motor neurons

2nd order sensory neurons Interneurons Motor neuron = lower motor neuron = anterior horn cell = second order motor neuron Glial cells

Organization of Gray Matter Pain Temperature Organization of Gray Matter Position sense

Vibration Pressure Touch Organization of Gray Matter Position sense Neck & base of Posterior Horn

from legs Between T1 and L2 enlarged Dorsal nucleus of Clarke 2nd order sensory neuron going to

cerebellum Organization of Gray Matter Intermediolateral Horn Interomediolateral horn Between T1 and L2 enlarged

Sympathetic neurons (preganglionic) Sympathetic Innervation Organization of Gray Matter

Intermediolateral Horn . At S2, S3, and S4 Parasympathetic neurons (preganglionic)

Parasympathetic Innervation Organization of Gray Matter Modulates motor activity via gamma motor neurons

Adjusts briskness of deep tendon reflexes Organization of Gray Matter Nuclei of alpha and gamma motor neurons

Innervates muscle spindles and muscles Lower Motor Neurons Alpha motor neurons originate from Rexed lamina IX ventral dorsal organization ventral extensor muscles

dorsal flexor muscles medial lateral organization medial proximal muscles lateral distal muscles Somatotopic Organization Coordinating Role of

Interneurons Breathing Nuclei of alpha and gamma motor neurons LMNs from spinal levels C3, C4 & C5 innervate the

phrenic nerve Controls diaphragm Control Functions Nuclei of alpha and gamma motor neurons At levels S1 - S4

LMNs form Onufs nucleus Innervates anal and urethral spincters; needed for sexual function Sacral cord

Configuration of Gray Matter Abundant white matter high in the spinal cord Enlargement of gray matter at the cervical level

Innervates arm muscles Configuration of Gray Matter Enlargement in thoracic region for sympathetic

neurons Enlargement in lumbar region for motor neurons to the legs Minimal white matter at the lower

cord Descending Motor Pathway Upper motor neuron 1st order neuron synapses on LMN Crossed pathway Lateral corticospinal

Uncrossed pathway Anterior corticospinal Somatotopic Organization Spinal Cord Tracts Unconscious position sense

movement feedback Ascending & Descending Tracts

Sensory Gracile tract Leg position & vibration Cuneate tract Arm position & vibration Dorsal spinocerebellar tract Strength & muscle speed

Ventral spinocerebellar tract Modulation; interneurons Lateral spinothalamic tract Pain & temperature Anterior spinothalamic tract Light touch

Spinocervical thalamic tract Kinesthetic movement & discriminative touch Motor Corticospinal tract Speed & agility

Reticulospinal tract Differential facilitation of motor neurons Rubrospinal tract Fix movement errors Lateral vestibulospinal tract

Extensor & posture Medial vestibulospinal tract Flexor & head position Tectospinal tract Head turning Ascending Tracts

Sensory Position Vibration Sensory Pain Temperature Spinal Cord Injury

Position Pain Brown Sequard Syndrome Transverse vs Hemi Cord Syndrome

Anterior vs Posterior Cord Syndromes Blood Supply to Spinal Cord Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury DUI: $100 addtl fine

South Carolina Spinal Cord Injury Research Board Monday Brainstem

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