Small Group / Targeted Interventions - PBworks

Small Group / Targeted Interventions - PBworks

Moving Up the Continuum: Implementing Successful Small Group Supports Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports C e n te r fo r PBS Small Group / Targeted Interventions Social Skill Training Self-Management Mentors/Check-in Peer tutoring / Peer Network

Academic support Individual plans (FBA) C e n te r fo r PBS School-wide Positive Behavior Support SW-PBS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior OSEP Center on PBIS C e n te r fo r PBS TA

DA Supporting Staff Behavior OUTCOMES SY ST EM S Positive Behavior Support Social Competence & Academic Achievement PRACTICES

C e n te r fo r PBS Supporting Student Behavior Supporting Decision Making Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based

High Intensity 1-5% Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive C e n te r fo r PBS 5-10% 80-90%

1-5% Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures 5-10% Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response 80-90% Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive

Universal Strategies: School-Wide Essential Features Statement of purpose Clearly define expected behaviors (Rules) Procedures for teaching & practicing expected behaviors Procedures for encouraging expected behaviors Procedures for discouraging problem behaviors Procedures for record-keeping and decision making ( Family Awareness and Involvement

C e n te r fo r PBS Benton Elementary I am. All Settings Classroom Hallways Cafeteria Bathrooms Playground Assemblies

Safe Keep bodies calm in line Report any problems Ask permission to leave any setting Maintain personal space Walk Stay to the right on stairs

Banisters are for hands Walk Push in chairs Place trash in trash can Wash hands with soap and water Keep water in the sink One person per stall Use equipment for intended purpose Wood chips are for

the ground Participate in school approved games only Stay in approved areas Keep body to self Walk Enter and exit gym in an orderly manner Respect ful Treat others the way you want to be treated

Be an active listener Follow adult direction(s) Use polite language Help keep the school orderly Be honest Take care of yourself Walk quietly so others can continue learning

Eat only your food Use a peaceful voice Allow for privacy of others Clean up after self Line up at first signal Invite others who want to join in Enter and exit building peacefully Share materials Use polite language Be an active

listener Applaud appropriately to show appreciation A Learner Be an active participant Give full effort Be a team player Do your job Be a risk taker Be

prepared Make good choices Return to class promptly Use proper manners Leave when adult excuses Follow bathroom procedures Return to class promptly

Be a problem solver Learn new games and activities Raise your hand to share Keep comments and questions on topic Universal Strategies: Non-Classroom Settings Identify Setting Specific Behaviors Develop Teaching Strategies Develop Practice Opportunities and Consequences Assess the Physical Characteristics Establish Setting Routines Identify Needed Support Structures

Data collection strategies C e n te r fo r PBS Universal Strategies: Classroom Use of school-wide expectations/rules Effective Classroom Management Behavior management Instructional management Environmental management Support for teachers who deal with students who display high rates of problem behavior C e n te r fo r PBS

The key BEHAVIOR is functionally related to the TEACHING ENVIRONMENT C e n te r fo r PBS School-wide PBS Process Analyses applying science to create and sustain school-wide systems C e n te r fo r PBS Practices (what we do for students)

Clear Outcomes/Objectives Research supported Technical assistance input Stake holder input C e n te r fo r PBS Systems (how we support adults) Evaluate Current systems New system Modify system

Allocate/reallocate resources Develop process/model and forms (adult & student) Training / information dissemination On-going support (adult & students) Develop formative evaluation process (student outcomes, adult use, success and barriers) Provide frequent positive & instructional feedback to staff C e n te r fo r PBS Data (how we make decisions)

Student outcomes Adult perceptions System analyses Cost benefit C e n te r fo r PBS Policy (how to maintain change) Operationalize processes Codify within existing policy Dissemination to multiple audiences C e n te r fo r PBS

Small Group / Targeted Interventions C e n te r fo r PBS Small Group / Targeted Interventions When universals not sufficient to impact behavior When students display chronic patterns When concerns arise regarding students behavior C e n te r fo r PBS Small Group Starting Points

1. Universals firmly in place 2. Data used consistently in team meetings 3. Data decision rules to identify students who need secondary supports Equal attention to practices (student support) and systems (adult support) C e n te r fo r PBS Pre-Requisites Universals must be well established and in-place Target practices that are preferred or promising (empirically validated) Teach basic features of strategies first (general case) Keys Match intervention to student need

Staff implementing interventions have skills and support ALL staff aware of interventions and their part in promoting generalization Focus on the systems to support throughout C e n te r fo r PBS Important Themes Part of a continuum must link to schoolwide PBS system Efficient and effective way to identify students Assessment = simple sort Intervention matched to presenting problem but not highly individualized C e n te r fo r PBS

Small Group / Targeted Interventions Consider Not fixed group Students needs vary across continuum over time and within academic/social area Least intrusive but matched to student need C e n te r fo r PBS Targeted Interventions: Building Blocks Teach/build pro-social replacement behaviors Build maintenance and generalization strategies to promote use

Attend to possible function of the problem behavior C e n te r fo r PBS Important Themes Small group = all students get the same intervention (e.g., pull out social skills) Targeted = altering classroom or other environment to support a small number of students but will likely benefit all students (e.g., classroom environment changes) Common misperception is that these strategies will fix the student and the classroom teacher does not need to be an active participant since specialists or outside staff are often involved in the intervention Important to stress that these interventions will require high level of involvement among ALL staff within the school building

C e n te r fo r PBS Essential Features Emphasis is on continuum and interrelated components of data, practices, systems C e n te r fo r PBS Small Group / Targeted Interventions Data Systematic way to identify at-risk students (e.g., office referrals, teacher nomination, rating scales) Measure progress and fade support slowly Practices

Within class first option Pull out programs must have generalization strategies Link small group with school-wide rules and social skills Academic & social strategies Systems Training for ALL staff on procedures Options for students who transfer in during school year C e n te r fo r PBS Screening & Assessment Office discipline referral data-decision rules

3 ODR for same offense = child study team Review of attendance, grades, achievement, other archival data Teacher referral Simple form Quick response C e n te r fo r PBS Screening & Assessment Routine review of individual student data Efficient teacher referral system

Parent referral Screening tools (e.g. SSBD) Look for those students who are often under the radar... Students who change addresses frequently Temporary or seasonal farmers or workers in the community Homeless students Students in foster care or juvenile service homes C e n te r fo r PBS Assessment Focus is on sorting student for service, not diagnosis and placement. Social-Behavioral Concerns Social skills Self-management

Academic Concerns Peer Tutors Check in Homework club Emotional Concerns C e n te r fo r PBS Adult mentors Small Group / Targeted Interventions Social Skill Training Self-Management Mentors/Check-in

Peer tutoring / Peer Network Academic support Individual plans (FBA) C e n te r fo r PBS Work Time Complete the current small group inventory for one strategy you currently use in your school C e n te r fo r PBS Social Skills Identify critical skills (deficit or performance problem)

Develop social skill lessons Tell, show, practice Match language to school-wide expectations Generalization strategies Must provide clear & specific activities all staff follow to promote generalization & make sure staff using strategies C e n te r fo r PBS Assessment: Skill Selection (Data) Teacher Ratings Ratings by others Direct Observation Importance of discussing cultural, language, and other factors that impact perceptions of appropriate social skills

C e n te r fo r PBS Planning Requirements (practices, systems) Curriculum / Lesson Plans Adapt/adopt Group procedures Generalization strategies C e n te r fo r PBS Lesson Components (practices) rule for when to use the skill set of useful skill variations

teach the rule (TELL) demonstrate the skill (SHOW) students practice the skill (PRACTICE) review and test the skill (PRACTICE) assign homework (PRACTICE) Teaching social skills follows the same format as teaching academic skills C e n te r fo r PBS Group Procedures (practices, system)

Who & how many in the group? 5-8 When & how long meet? At least weekly over the school year Who teaches? Combination Basic behavior management Routines Expectations Attention signal Incentives

Social skill outcomes, expectations, etc. must be connected to the school-wide PBS system C e n te r fo r PBS An Example C e n te r fo r PBS Social Skills Club Student Selection Designed to meet the needs of repeat offenders Criteria for selection: 8 or more referrals across previous school year Focus = C e n te r

fo r PBS Social Skills Club Parent letters to extend invitation Voluntary participation Presented as prevention/support Encouraged parent participation Focus = C e n te r fo r PBS Social Skills Club Instructors Special Education teacher with fluency in social skills instruction Regular class teacher Access to technical assistance and resources Focus =

C e n te r fo r PBS Social Skills Club Group Management Two adults! Club expectations linked to school-wide expectations Rules and expectations for group participation in role play Planned fun Reinforcement system linked to school-wide system Focus = C e n te r fo r PBS Social Skills Club Curriculum & Delivery of Instruction Collected and prepared materials from a variety of

sources. One hour per week after school for the academic school year Attention to pre-requisite skills for participating in lessons. Structured format: Advanced Organizer, Teach, Model, Role play, Review, Test & Homework Focus = C e n te r fo r PBS Social Skills Club generalization Posters of each lesson given to classroom teachers to display in class and use as visual prompt. Club participants present weekly social skill lesson to from club to their class. Staff instructed on how to prompt and reinforce Focus =


12 10 8 6 4 2 0 A* B C D E F* G


M N O P Self-Management Teach self-monitoring & targeted social skills simultaneously Practice self-monitoring until students accurately self-monitor at 80% or better Periodic checks on accuracy It is not simply giving students a self-evaluation check-list, must teach and practice to fluency and reinforce both accurate self-evaluation and appropriate behavior C e n te r

fo r PBS Check-in Focus is on academic & social compliance AM / PM Teach strategies to enter work /objectives to accomplish Agendas All staff must prompt/reinforce student use Emphasize the goal is to fade out the check-in so the focus should be on reinforcing students for accurately self-monitoring and work completion across the school day C e n te r fo r PBS

Mentoring Focus on connections at school Not monitoring work Not to nag regarding behavior Staff volunteer Not in classroom No administrators Match student to volunteer 10 minutes min per week Emphasize the importance of being ready to meet with student on a regular, predictable, and consistent basis. Goal is not to become a friend, but a positive adult role model who expresses sincere and genuine care for the student C e n te r fo r PBS

Mentors Role To provide guidance, support, and encouragement for the student while modeling such skills as effective communication, empathy and concern for others, and openness and honesty Commitment for entire academic year C e n te r fo r PBS Involve Personnel who have Contact with Students Teachers suggest program type best fit Administrators actively involved in scheduling, recruiting, and mentor

selection Counselors Train mentors, troubleshoot problems, etc. Secretaries Cooks Custodians C e n te r fo r PBS Determine Program Goals and Objectives Based on needs of students Determined by Team Focus on basic needs

C e n te r fo r PBS Academic Achievement Behavior Communication Attendance Social skills Determine Who Should be in Program Clearly define population and selection criteria Academic failure, absentees, etc. Age/grade level

C e n te r fo r PBS Develop Activities and Procedures Determine length and frequency of mentor-student contact Weekly C e n te r fo r PBS Orient Mentors and Students Before formal process begins Both mentor and student should understand roles and hold positive expectations

Mentors must be aware of student needs and characteristics Determine individual student goals and outcomes C e n te r fo r PBS Monitor Mentoring Process Continuous monitoring to determine success Provide ongoing support for the Mentor Formal/informal Where When How often C e n te r fo r PBS

Evaluate Program Effectiveness Pretest/posttest comparison of criterion for entrance into program (attendance, grades, suspensions, etc.) Possible outcomes Increase in C e n te r fo r PBS Student attendance Work completion/grades Academic performance

Completion of homework Parental/teacher involvement Positive student-teacher interactions Evaluate Program Effectiveness Decrease in C e n te r fo r PBS Meetings with counselor Office referrals Time outs Suspension

Detention Practical Suggestions Keep in mind the importance of communication, especially Listening Remember your purpose for mentoring Continue ongoing assessment of program effectiveness C e n te r fo r PBS Pals - Combined Discipline Referrals Sept-J an YR2 vs. YR3 45 43

46% Number of Behavior Referrals 40 35 30 25 Average 5.38 23 20 15 Average 2.88

10 5 0 YR2 C e n te r fo r PBS YR3 AMOUNT OF TI ME PER WEEK SPENT WORKI NG DI RECTLY WI TH STUDENT More t han 60 minut es 0 40 t o 60 minut es

0 30 t o 40 minut es 0 20 t o 30 minut es 10 t o 20 minut es 3 6 10 minut es or less 9 NUMBER OF TEACHERS

C e n te r fo r PBS Peer Tutoring Tutors must be taught how to teach Tutors must be taught what to do if tutee does not comply Tutors must be given the option to drop out at any time without penalty Initially, peer tutoring should be undertaken only with close and on-going teacher supervision to ensure success C e n te r fo r PBS Academic Support Homework

If data indicate it doesnt come back, give up the battle and build support within the school day Remediation Direct instruction in addition to the current curriculum Accommodation Within instruction Emphasize the need to identify and intervene early before students fall behind Ideal is routine screening using Curriculum Based Measures (CBM) to identify students early C e n te r fo r PBS Small Group Planning Sheet 1. Purpose / Outcome (Operationally define targets and goals of intervention)

2. Student Identification (Data Decision Rule) Existing data (ODR) Staff referral Parent referral 3. Parent notification Written notice Phone call Dist policy 4. Who implements Training for Implementers Technical Assistance for Implementers Implementation Checks (include timeline) 5. When / where implement (include start/end dates) C e n te r fo r PBS

Small Group Planning Sheet 6. Connect points to classroom and other settings / follow-along activities Training for staff on implementation of follow-along activities Tip Sheets for follow-along activities Technical assistance / follow-up for staff Follow-along implementation checks 7. Strategies to share plan and progress with home and community agencies 8. Follow-up support for student (s) after support ends Information sharing with new staff Student participation in support activities

9. Evaluation (include timeline) Student Outcomes & data source Staff perception & data source Parent perception & data source Assess generalization across settings Assess maintenance of treatment outcomes 10. Cost/benefit analysis C e n te r fo r PBS Final Thoughts SYSTEM, SYSTEM, SYSTEM

Train on both practices and how schools can implement (General to Specific Case) Fluency on underlying process (data, practices, systems) C e n te r fo r PBS

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