Size and Scale of the Universe SIZE AND SCALE OF THE UNIVERSE Size and Scale of the Universe WHAT IS YOUR COSMIC ADDRESS? # Street Planet City Orbit State Star? Country ? Continent
Hemisphere Size and Scale of the Universe Guesses Realm Earth Sun Solar System Solar Neighborhood Galaxy Local Group (of galaxies) Local Supercluster (of galaxies) Universe
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Salt grain Salt grain Salt grain Salt grain Salt grain Salt grain Size and Scale of the Universe Actual Size
Actual Size Multiple (diameter in km) (in light-years) X larger than Earth 12,700 (1.27E+4) 1.4 billionths (1.4E-9) 1 salt grain (0.1 mm) 1.39 million (1.39E+6) 1.5 ten-millionths (1.5E-7)
109 (1.09E+2) gum ball (1.09 cm) Solar System 30 billion (3.0E+10) 0.0032 (3.2E-3) 2.34 million (2.34E+6) football stadium (234 meters) Solar Neighborhoo d 378 trillion
(3.78E+14) 40 (4.0E+1) 30 billion (3.0E+10) ~ size of Moon (3,480 km) 946 quadrillion (9.46E+17) 100,000 (1.0E+5) 75 trillion (7.5E+13) 5.4 Suns (7.5 million km) Local Group (of galaxies) 62 quintillion
(6.15E+19) 6.5 million (6.5E+6) 4.8 quadrillion (4.8E+15) orbit of Mars Local Supercluster 1.2 sextillion (1.2E+21) 130 million (1.3E+8) 97 quadrillion (9.7E+16) orbit of Neptune Realm Earth
Sun Galaxy Scale Model -diameter (~3 AU) -diameter (~60 AU) Universe 860.9 sextillion (8.6E+23) 91 billion (9.1E+10) 68 quintillion (6.8E+19) Oort Cloud-radius (48,000 AU or 0.76 ly)
Size and Scale of the Universe REALMS OF THE UNIVERSE Image courtesy of The Cosmic Perspective by Bennett, Donahue, Schneider, & Voit; Addison Wesley, 2002 Size and Scale of the Universe EARTH Planet where we all live Comprised primarily of rock Spherical in shape 12,700 km in diameter It would take 17 days to circumnavigate the globe driving a car at 100 km/hr (62 mph) At the speed of light, it would take 0.13 seconds to go all the way around Earth Image Credit: NASA/JPL/GSFC
Size and Scale of the Universe SUN The star that Earth orbits Composed primarily of hydrogen and helium gas Uses nuclear fusion in its core to generate heat and light to allow itself to resist the crushing weight of its own mass Spherical in shape 1.39 Million km in diameter Image Credit: SOHO/NASA/ESA Size and Scale of the Universe SUN & EARTH The Suns diameter is 109 times greater than
that of Earth Over 1 million Earths would fit inside the Suns volume The average distance between the Earth and the Sun is called an Astronomical Unit (AU) - it is about150 million kilometers It would take 11,780 Earths lined up side to side to bridge the gap between Earth and Sun (or 107 Suns) Image Credit: SOHO/NASA/ESA THE SOLAR SYSTEM Image credit: NASA Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt Size and Scale of the Universe
8 planets, several dwarf planets, thousands of asteroids, and trillions of comets and meteoroids Mostly distributed in a flat disk Pluto orbits ~40 AU from Sun Image credit: NASA The Sun blows a constant wind of charged gas into interstellar space, called the Solar Wind The boundary between the Solar Wind and interstellar space (the Heliosphere) is around 100 AU from the Sun (200 AU diameter) Size and Scale of the Universe THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHO OD The region of the Galaxy within about 20 lightyears of the Sun (40 lightyears diameter) A light-year is the distance that light travels in one year (~10 trillion
kilometers or 63,000 AU) The neighborhood stars generally move with the Sun in its orbit around the center of the Galaxy The Solar Neighborhood is a vague term not scientifically defined Note: the size of the stars in this image represents their brightness, they would actually all be specks at this distance Image credit: Andrew Colvin THE MILKY WAY GALAXY Size and Scale of the Universe The Milky Way Galaxy is a giant disk of stars 100,000 light-years across and 1,000 light-years thick The Sun is located at the edge of a spiral arm, 30,000 lightyears from the center It takes about 250
million years for the Sun to complete one orbit There are over 200 billion stars in the Milky Way Image credit: R. Hurt (SSC), JPL-Caltech, NASA Size and Scale of the Universe THE LOCAL GROUP About 6.5 million (OF GALAXIES) light-years in diameter Contains 3 large spiral galaxies -Milky Way, Andromeda(M31), and Triangulum(M33) -- plus a few dozen dwarf galaxies with elliptical or irregular shapes Gravitationally bound
togetherorbiting about a common center of mass Roughly shaped like a football Image Credit: Andrew Colvin Size and Scale of the Universe THE LOCAL The Local Supercluster is SUPERCLUSTER about 130 million lightyears across Its a huge cluster of thousands upon thousands of galaxies Largest cluster is the Virgo cluster containing well over a thousand galaxies Clusters and groups of galaxies are gravitationally bound together, however the clusters and groups spread away from each
other as the Universe expands Roughly pancake shaped Image credit: Andrew Colvin Size and Scale of the Universe THE UNIVERSE Great walls and filaments of (THE OBSERVABLE galaxy clusters surrounding PORTION) voids containing no galaxies Probably at least 100 billion galaxies in the Universe Surveys of galaxies reveal a web-like or honeycomb structure to the Universe Image Credit: G.L. Bryan, M. L. Norman, UIUC, NCSA, GC3
Computer simulations also show a similar structure, often called the Cosmic Web Image Credit: Dr Chris Fluke, Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology Size and Scale of the Universe THE UNIVERSE The Observable Universe (THE OBSERVABLE is currently about PORTION) 91 billion light-years across There could be (and likely is) much more beyond that, but we cannot see it from this point in spacetime Note: The matter that we can see glowing shortly after the Big Bang (detected by
the light it emitted 13.7 billion years ago) is now about 46 billion light-years away due to the ongoing expansion of the fabric of the Universe Image Credit: Springer et al (2004) Size and Scale of the Universe SO HOW DO WE KNOW THESE DISTANCES?... Size and Scale of the Universe There are two basic methods for measuring astronomical distances: the standard rulers and the standard candles... 1) THE STANDARD RULERS
Use knowledge of physical and/or geometric properties of an object to relate an angular size with a physical size to determine distance Examples: Parallax, Moving Clusters, Time Delays, Water MASERs Considered to be a direct or absolute measurement R d d = R/Tan() R/ Size and Scale of the Universe PARALLA X (A STANDARD RULER) Image Credit: B. Mendez Requires very precise measurements of stellar positions, and long baselines Need telescopes with high resolution, and must observe over several
years The Hipparchos satellite measured distances using this method for tens of thousands of stars within 1,500 light-years of the Sun Size and Scale of the Universe 2) THE STANDARD CANDLES Use knowledge of physical and/or empirical properties of an object to determine its Luminosity, which yields distance via the Inverse Square Law of Light Examples: Cepheid Variables, Supernovae, TRGB, Tully-Fisher Considered to be relative until tied to an absolute calibration b = L/4d2 Image credit: Splung.com Size and Scale of the Universe CEPHEID VARIABLE STARS Cepheid Variables are a type of giant star whose
surface pulsates in and out with a regular period. That Period of pulsation is related to the Luminosity of the star (STANDARD CANDLES) Image credit: NASA The Large Magellanic Cloud contains hundreds of Cepheids all at the same distance. Which allows for robust determination of the Period Luminosity Relationship Image credit: NASA Size and Scale of the Universe SUPERNOVAE (TYPE 1A) Supernovae are EXTREMELY BRIGHT explosions that can be seen from enormous distances (STANDARD CANDLES)
Their absolute luminosity is known and fades at a consistent rate, so we can determine their distance Image credit: David Hardy, PPARC White dwarfs capturing matter from a nearby star explode in special kind of Supernova called Type 1a Type 1a supernovae are found by their spectral signature Image credit: European Southern Observatory Size and Scale of the Universe To measure cosmological distances a ladder of methods is used to reach further out into the Universe. Each rung in the ladder depends on the calibration of the methods below it. Image credit: Addison Wesley THE COSMIC LADDER
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