ENV-5022B Low Carbon Energy - 2017 Low Carbon Strategies at the University of East Anglia http://www2.env.uea.ac.uk/energy/energy.htm http://www.uea.ac.uk/~e680/energy/energy.htm Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal Keith Tovey ( ) M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv 1 Nelson Court Constable Terrace 2 Low Energy Educational Buildings Nursing and Midwifery Thomas Paine Study Centre School Medical School Phase 2 ZICER Elizabeth Fry
Building Medical School 3 Energy (kWh/m2 /yr) Elizabeth Fry: Conservation: management improvements 140 120 Heating/Cooling Hot Water Electricity 100 80 60 40 20 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Careful Monitoring and Analysis can reduce energy consumption. Building cost ~ 6% more but has heating requirement ~25% of average building at time. Building Regulations have been updated: 1994, 2002, 2006, 2010 but building outperforms all of these. 4 ZICER Building Won the Low Energy Building of the Year Award 2005 Heating Energy consumption as new in 2003 was reduced by further 57% by careful record keeping, management techniques and an adaptive approach to control. Incorporates 34 kW of Solar Panels on top floor 5 Operation of Main Building Mechanically ventilated that utilizes hollow core ceiling slabs as supply air ducts to the space Incoming air into the AHU Regenerative heat
exchanger 6 Operation of Main Building Filter Heater Air passes through hollow cores in the ceiling slabs Air enters the internal occupied space 7 Operation of Main Building Recovers 87% of Ventilation Heat Requirement. Space for future
chilling Out of the building The return air passes through the heat exchanger Return stale air is extracted from each floor 8 Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures Warm air Winter Day Warm air
Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs store heat from appliances and body heat. Air Temperature is same as building fabric leading to a more pleasant working environment 9 Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures Cold air Winter Night
Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs also radiate heat back into room In late afternoon heating is turned off. Cold air 10 Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures Cool air Summer night Draws out the heat accumulated during the day
Cools the slabs to act as a cool store the following day night ventilation/ free cooling Cool air 11 Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures Warm air Summer day Warm air Slabs pre-cool the air before
entering the occupied space concrete absorbs and stores heat less/no need for air-conditioning / 12 Energy Consumption (kWh/day) kWh/ Good Management has reduced Energy Requirements Space Heating Consumption reduced by 57% 1000 800 800 600 400 350 200
0 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 o
Mean |External Temperature ( C) Original Heating Strategy New Heating Strategy 13 ZICER Building Photo shows only part of top Floor Mono-crystalline PV on roof ~ 27 kW in 10 arrays Poly- crystalline on faade ~ 6.7 kW in 3 arrays 14 Arrangement of Cells on Facade Individual cells are connected horizontally Cells active Cells inactive even though not covered by shadow
As shadow covers one column all cells are inactive If individual cells are connected vertically, only those cells actually in shadow are affected. 15 Use of PV generated energy Peak output is 34 kW 34 kW Sometimes electricity is exported Inverters are only 91% efficient Most use is for computers DC power packs are inefficient typically less than 60% efficient Need an integrated approach
16 Conversion efficiency improvements Building Scale CHP 3% Radiation Losses 11% Flue Losses 61% 36% 86% Gas Localised generation makes use of waste heat. Reduces conversion losses significantly Exhaust Heat Exchanger Engine Heat Exchanger Generator
36% Electricity 50% Heat 17 UEAs Combined Heat and Power 3 units each generating up to 1.0 MW electricity and 1.4 MW heat 18 Conversion efficiency improvements Before installation 1997/98 MWh electricity gas oil 19895 35148
33 Total Emission factor kg/kWh 0.46 0.186 0.277 Carbon dioxide Tonnes 9152 6538 9 Electricity After installation
1999/ Total CHP export 2000 site generation MWh 20437 15630 977 Emission kg/kWh -0.46 factor CO2 Tonnes -449 15699 Heat import boilers CHP oil total 5783 14510 28263 923
0.46 0.186 0.186 0.277 2660 2699 5257 256 10422 This represents a 33% saving in carbon dioxide 19 Conversion efficiency improvements Load Factor of CHP Plant at UEA Demand for Heat is low in summer: plant cannot be used effectively More electricity could be generated in summer 20 Heat rejected
High Temperature High Pressure Throttle Valve Compressor Condenser Evaporator Low Temperature Low Pressure Heat extracted for cooling
A typical Air conditioning/Refrigeration Unit 21 Absorption Heat Pump Heat from external source Heat rejected High Temperature High Pressure Desorber Throttle Valve Condenser
Evaporator Heat extracted for cooling Low Temperature Low Pressure Heat Exchanger W~0 Absorber Adsorption Heat pump reduces electricity demand and increases electricity generated 22 A 1 MW Adsorption chiller 1 MW
Uses Waste Heat from CHP provides most of chilling requirements in summer Reduces electricity demand in summer Increases electricity generated locally Saves ~500 tonnes Carbon Dioxide annually 23 Trailblazing to a Low Carbon Future Efficient CHP 1990 2006 Students Floor Area (m2)
5570 138000 CO2 (tonnes) CO2 kg/m2 CO2 kg/student Absorption Chilling 14047 207000 Change since 1990 +152% +50% 2015 16000 220000 Change since 1990 +187% +159%
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