What are Temperate Fruit Plants ? Temperate fruit

What are Temperate Fruit Plants ? Temperate fruit

What are Temperate Fruit Plants ? Temperate fruit plants are specific in the climatic requirement. They can tolerate both diurnal and seasonal wide fluctuation of temperature and are grown only in place where winter is distinctly cold. They require exposure of specific chilling temperature for certain period to break bud dormancy and initiate bud break. These fruit plants are generally deciduous and suitable of higher elevation as they can withstand frost. Examples: apple, pear, plum, apricot, almond, peach, strawberry, walnut, pecan nut and cherry. Horticultural classification of temperate fruits

Classification is a system of placing an individual or a number in various groups, or to categorizes them according to a particular plan or sequence which is in conformity with the nomenclature Classification helps : To identify and name them To find some idea of the closeness of their relationship To suggest with what other kind they possibly may or may not be interbred or crossed To suggest the kind with which they possibly may or may not be intergrafted To suggest soil and cultural requirements and climatic adaptations.

1.Classification on the basis of plant stature: 1.Temperate tree fruits: Fruits borne on the trees growing in the temperate climates such as apple, pear, stone fruits etc. 2.Temperate small fruits: Fruits generally borne on the vines, brambles or herbaceous plants grown under temperate climate like strawberry, craneberry, blackberry, blueberry etc. 3.Temperate nuts: Nuts are characterized by the hard shell outside, separating the kernel and husk of the fruit. Pecan nut, hazel nut and walnut are good examples of temperate fruit plants producing nuts. 2.Classification based on fruit morphology Depending on number of ovaries involved in fruit

formation, fruits are classified into three groups. (i) simple fruits (ii) aggregate fruits ( iii) multiple (composite) fruits i.Simple fruits: Simple fruits are derived from a single ovary of one flower. Simple fruits are further classified as fleshy and dry fruits. A. Fleshy fruits: These are this fruits whose pericarp (ovary wall) becomes fleshy or succulent at maturity. The temperate fleshy fruits may be either pome or drupe. a.Pome: The pome is an inferior, two or more celled fleshy, syncarpous fruit surrounded by the thalamus. The fruit is referred as false fruit as the edible fleshy

part is not derived from the ovarian tissues but from external ovarian tissue thalamus. Examples of temperate pome fruits are apple, pear and quince). Fleshy fruit: Pomes Leathery carpels Edible portion is receptacle HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production b.Drupe (stone): This type of fruit derived from a single carpel, however, the olive is an exception in that the flower has two carples and four ovules but one carpel develop. Two ovules are borne in most of drupes but one seed develops. In this type of fruit, the pericarp is differentiated into three distinct layers; thin exocarp or peel of the fruits, the

mesocarp which is fleshy and hard and stony endocarp, enclosing seed. Examples of temperate drupe fruits are cherry, peach, plum and apricot. In almond at maturity exocarp and mesocarp get separated as leathery involucre and are removed before marketing, only endocarp containing the edible seed is used hence it is nut. Fleshy fruit: Drupes One seeded Seed within stony endocarp Peach, plum, apricot, cherry Skin = exocarp Eat mesocarp Pit = endocarp HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut

Production B.Dry fruits: This type of fruit has been classified on the basis of pericarp (ovary wall) at maturity. The entire pericarp becomes dry and often brittle or hard at maturity. They are dehiscent ( in which the seeds are dispersed from fruit at maturity) and indehiscent ( not split open when ripe) Nuts are typical example of indehiscent dry fruits a.Nut: A fruit in which carpel wall is hard or bony in texture. Fruit is derived from an hypogynous flower ( filbert) or an epigynous one ( walnut) and is enclosed in dry involucres (husk).

It is only one seeded, but in most cases in derived from two carpels. Examples are walnut, almond, chestnut, hazelnut and pecan nut. Dry fruits are not juicy or succulent when mature and ripe. When dry, they may split open and discharge their seeds (called dehiscent fruits) or retain their seeds (called indehiscent fruits). Dry fruit One seeded Seed within stony endocarp Almond Mesocarp dries and separates Endocarp is hard to soft Eat seed HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

b. Achene: A one seeded fruit in which the seed is attached to ovary wall at one point. Example is strawberry. Dry fruit: Indehiscent Single carpel Does not split when ripe Achene One seeded, free from pericarp Strawberry, sunflower Nut Similar to achene

Enclosed by pericarp (leathery in chestnut, woody in walnut) Husk (shuck) is fusion of sepals, bracts, bracteoles. HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production ii. Aggregate fruits: Aggregate fruits develop from numerous ovaries of the same flower. Individual ovary may be drupe or berry. Raspberry is included in this category. Aggregate Fruit Many ovules One flower

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production iii. Multiple (composite) fruits: Multiple or composite fruits are produced from the ripened ovaries of several flowers crowded on the same inflorescence. The example of this type is mulberry. Multiple fruit Many flowers Along a common axis or inflorescence HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

3.Classification based on bearing habit: The flower bud is either terminal or lateral. Based upon the location of fruit buds and type of flower bearing structure to which they give rise, the temperate fruits are classified as under. 1.Terminal bearer: Flower buds mixed, flowering shoot with terminal inflorescences. Examples are apple, pear, walnut (pistillate flowers) and pecan (pistillate flowers) 2. Lateral bearer: (a) Flower bud containing flower parts only e.g peach, apricot, plum, cherry, almond, walnut ( staminate catkin) and pecan (staminate catkin) (b) Flower buds mixed, flowering shoot with terminal inflorescences e.g blackberry, raspberry, blueberry, apple and pear(occasionally) (c ) Flower buds mixed, flowering shoot with lateral inflorescences

e.g. persimmon, chestnut, pistachio nut, craneberry. 4. Classification based on Fruit Growth Pattern: Sigmoid pattern: The combined growth of fruit results from cell division, cell enlargement and air space formation results in sigmoidal ( S- shaped) curve when fruit weight is plotted as function of time. Examples are apple, walnut, pecan, strawberry and pear Single sigmoidal growth curve Double sigmoid: The first slow growth period coincides with the period of pit hardening, during which lignification of the endocarp( stone) proceeds rapidly, while

mesocarp and seed growth suppressed. Near the end of pit hardening, flesh cells enlarge rapidly until fruit is ripe, after which growth slows down and ceases. Examples are peach, plum, cherry and kiwifruit Double sigmoidal growth curve

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