Tuesday, March 17th , 2015 _____________________________________________ __ Daily

Tuesday, March 17th , 2015 _____________________________________________ __ Daily

Tuesday, March 17th , 2015 _____________________________________________ __ Daily Objective: By the end of today I should be able to Explain the difference between a gene and a trait Identify homologous chromosomes

Entrance Activity: Open your book to page 307 and read through the chapter mystery. Do the best you can to give an answer to Susans questions: Why arent any of the chicks green? What happened to GREGOR MENDEL

Who: An Austrian monk in the 1800s Why hes important: He developed an explanation for the mechanism of evolution WHAT MENDEL DID P Parental F1 Generation F2 Generation

MENDELS CONCLUSIONS Inheritance is determined by factors that are passed from one generation to the next, genes. The principle of dominance states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive. REVIEW Mendel Traits Alleles Genes

TRAITS: A SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTIC Mendel used the following characteristics in his pea plant studies Seed shape: round or wrinkled Seed color: yellow or green Pod shape: smooth or constricted Pod color: yellow or green Flower position: axial or terminal Plant height: tall or short WEDNESDAY, MARCH 18TH, 2015 Daily Objective: BTEOTISBAT

Describe how dominant and recessive traits interact Describe the genotype and phenotype of an individual Entrance Activity: Grab a vocab flipper from the first counter fold it in half with the words on the outside. Use your book to fill in the first 3 words please GENES AND ALLELES

Gene = unit of heredity (flower color) Alleles = different forms of the same gene. Example: the gene for flower color may be a red allele (R) or a white allele (r) Genetic Traits Types of allele: Dominant = allele that hides another allele. As long as there is one dominant allele, it will be expressed (show up) in an organism. Recessive = allele that is hidden. It can be masked by a dominant allele. It will show up if no dominant allele is present

CHROMOSOMES Humans have 23 PAIRS of chromosomes HOMOLOGOUS PAIRS Two chromosomes with the same genes but can have different forms Example the first Pair has your eye color Gene on it, the left Comes from your mom

The right comes from Your dad Now Mendel created hybrid plants who expressed the traits of only one parent. One plants Allele for a trait had been dominant, while the other parent plants had been recessive. So what happens to the recessive alleles for a trait? How did this separation, or segregation, of alleles occur?

Mendel suggested that the alleles for tallness and shortness in the F1 plants must have segregated from each other during the formation of the sex cells, or gametes. MENDELS LAWS LAW OF SEGREGATION = one allele from each gene pair goes into each sex cell. YOU MUST KNOW THIS PART Homozygous: the homologous pair is made of 2 of the same type of

alleles Heterozygous: the homologous pair is made of 2 of different type of alleles Phenotype = what they look like Genotype = what alleles they have Ex. Tt Phenotype = Tall Genotype = Tt *Some alleles are neither

dominant nor recessive, and many traits are controlled by multiple alleles or multiple genes GENOTYPE In Mendels experiments, there were two alleles for each trait, one from each parent. Height could either be short or tall Lets use T to represent tall alleles and

t to represent short alleles Homozygous an organisms has two identical alleles, like TT. Both parents gave a tall allele (Dominant or recessive) This can also be called a Purebred Heterozygous an organisms has two different alleles, like Tt. Parents gave different forms of the height gene This can also be called a Hybrid

Thursday, March 19th, 2015 _____________________________________________ __ Daily Objective: By the end of today I should be able to Use a Punnett Square to predict the outcome of a specific Genetic Cross ENTRANCE TASK

In guinea Pigs, having a Black coat (B) is dominant to having a white coat (b) 1. What genotypes could a Guinea Pig with a black coat have? 2. What genotype does a guinea pig with a white coat have? Friday, March 20th, 2015

_____________________________________________ __ Daily Objective: Same as yesterday ENTRANCE TASK Using the back of yesterdays sheet, complete the following genetic cross: In purple-peopleeaters, one-horn is dominant and no horns is recessive. Draw a Punnett Square

showing the cross of a purple people eater that is Heterozygous for horns HW: Draw Figure 11-5 on page 312 in your notebook GENETICS AND PROBABILITY

Probability is the likelihood that something will occur. Probability is used in genetics to predict the outcome of genetic crosses Flip a coinWhat is the probability that you will get heads? What is the probability that you will get heads 3 times in a row? PUNNETT SQUARES

Punnett squares use mathematical probability to help predict the genotype and phenotype combinations in genetic crosses Page 316 PUNNETT SQUARES 1. Start with the parents PUNNETT SQUARES

We will cross two homozygous parents TT homozygous dominant tt homozygous recessive PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT In Humans, tall (E) is dominant over short (e). What are the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of potential offspring between 2

individuals who are homozygous dominant and heterozygous? Parent Genotypes? _________ X __________ Homologous chromosomes separate and two new cells are formed Meiosis II Each daughter cell has ONE Allele of each gene instead of two that is what makes them sex cells

HOMEWORK Using your offsprings phenotype, you will create a picture of your offspring. It needs to include all characteristics Monday, March 23rd , 2015 _______________________________________________ Daily Objective: By the end of today I should be able to Describe the inheritance

patterns that exist beyond simple dominance One cat carries heterozygous, longhaired traits (Ss), and its mate carries homozygous shorthaired traits (ss). Use a Punnett square to determine the probability of one of their offspring having long hair.

Incomplete Dominance = The heterozygous phenotype is somewhere in between the two homozygous phenotypes WW R R R W Co-dominance = Both traits will show up. They are not blended

together, you actually see both TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE With a partner, decide whether the following picture is an example of incomplete dominance or codominance What would the genotype of this flower be?

Tuesday, March 24th, 2015 _____________________________________________ __ Daily Objective: By the end of today I should be able to Describe the inheritance patterns that exist beyond simple dominance ENTRANCE TASK: Is the flower in

the picture showing incomplete dominance or codominance? How do you know? What would its genotype be? MULTIPLE ALLELES Keep in mind, an individual can only have two alleles for a particular gene

BUT more than two possible alleles can exist within a population Example: Blood Type Look at figure 11-12 on page 273 POLYGENIC TRAITS Traits that are controlled

by two or more genes are called polygenic traits Eye Color Skin Color INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT Pg. 271 Genes for different traits can

segregate independently during the formation of gametes (sex cells) Example: The seed shape and seed color genes do not influence each others inheritance. Thursday, March 25th, 2015 _____________________________________________ __ Daily Objective: By the end of today

I should be able to Complete a dihybrid cross\ ENTRANCE TASK Have out all 4 of your homework assignments. In guinea Pigs, having a Read through page 316 What is the difference between a one factor and a two factor cross?

Review of Monohybrid Crosses Remember, monohybrid crosses involve only ONE trait Practice In fruit flies, red eyes are dominant over white eyes. Cross a white-eyed fly with a homozygous dominant red-eyed fly. Cross two heterozygous red-eyed flies. Draw a Punnett square for each cross, and determine the genotypic and phenotypic ratios. Review of Monohybrid Crosses

Can you determine the genotype of a white-eyed fly just by looking at it? Yes- its rr Can you determine the genotype of a red-eyed fly just by looking at it? No- it could be RR or Rr How could you determine the genotype of the red-eyed fly? Perform a test cross Dihybrid Cross: a cross that shows the possible offspring for two traits Fur Color: B: Black

b: White Coat Texture: R: Rough r: Smooth In this example, we will cross a heterozygous individual with another heterozygous individual. Their genotypes will be: BbRr x BbRr Dihybrid Cross BbRr x BbRr First, you must find ALL possible gametes

that can be made from each parent. Remember, each gamete must have one B and one R. Dihybrid Cross BbRr x BbRr Possible gametes: Next, arrange all possible BR gametes for one parent along the Br top of your Punnett Square, and all possible gametes for the other bR parent down the side of your br

Punnett Square Dihybrid Crosses: a cross that shows the possible offspring for two traits BbRr x BbRr Fur Color: B: Black b: White Coat Texture: R: Rough r: Smooth Then, find

the possible genotypes of the offspring B R Br b R b r B R

Br bR b r Dihybrid Crosses: a cross that shows the possible offspring for two traits BbRr x BbRr Fur Color: B: Black

b: White Coat Texture: R: Rough r: Smooth B R Br b R b r B R

Br bR BBR R BBRr BbRR b r BbRr BBRr

BBrr BbRr Bbrr BbRR BbRr bbRR bbRr BbRr

Bbrr bbRr bbrr How many of the offspring would have a black, rough coat? BR Br bR

b r BR BBR BBRr BbR R BbRr Br BBRr

BBrr BbRr Bbrr How many of the offspring would have a white, rough coat? bR BbR R

BbRr bbR R bbRr How many of the offspring would have a white, smooth coat? b r BbRr

Bbrr bbRr bbrr How many of the offspring would have a black, smooth coat? R Fur Color: B: Black b: White

Coat Texture: R: Rough r: Smooth How many of the offspring would have black, rough coat? BR Br bR b r

BR BBR BBRr BbR R BbRr Br BBRr BBrr

BbRr Bbrr How many of the offspring would have a white, rough coat? bR BbR R BbRr bbR

R bbRr How many of the offspring would have a white, smooth coat? b r BbRr Bbrr bbRr

bbrr How many of the offspring would have a black, smooth coat? Phenotypic Ratio 9:3:3:1 R Fur Color: B: Black b: White

Coat Texture: R: Rough r: Smooth More Practice On the back of your notes In pea plants, yellow seeds (Y) are dominant over green seeds (y), and rounded peas (R) are dominant over wrinkled peas (r). Cross a plant that is heterozygous for both traits with a plant that is homozygous recessive for both traits. Draw a Punnett square to show all possible offspring, and determine the genotypic and phenotypic ratios. YyRr X yyrr

YR Yr yR yr yr YyRr Yyrr yyRr

yyrr yr YyRr Yyrr yyRr yyrr yr YyRr

Yyrr yyRr yyrr yr YyRr Yyrr yyRr yyrr

Genotypes: RRyy Gametes: RrYY Gametes: p y t o y Kar e Monday, March 17th,

2014 _____________________________________________ __ Daily Objective: By the end of today I should be able to Describe the process of meiosis Entrance task: For the 100th time What type of cells does

meiosis create? How are these cells different from normal cells? What is the MEIOSIS Think back to mitosis What is the purpose of mitosis?

Look through figure 11-15 on page 324 and 325. Look through page 326. In your notebook, answer the following questions: How does meiosis differ from mitosis? What are some similarities? Mitosis # Divisions: 1

# Daughter Cells Produced: 2 (identical) # Chromosome Sets: 2 (2N) 1 from mom, 1 from dad Location: Body Cells (liver, muscle) Importance: Produces identical cells for growth and repair Type of Reproduction: Asexual Meiosis # Divisions: # Daughter Cells Produced: # Chromosome Sets:

Location: Importance: Type of Reproduction: Meiosis I: DNA replicates and Homologous chromosomes group to form tetrads. F f Meiosis

h h Tetrad F h f h Crossing over: As homologous chromosomes pair up and form tetrads,

they can exchange portions of their chromatids . f F But Ms. McClellan Why should I care about crossing over? Because crossing over creates new allele combinations and allows for different types of offspring to be created Homologous

chromosomes separate and two new cells are formed Meiosis II Meiosis Each daughter cell has ONE Allele of each gene instead of two that is what makes them sex cells Genetic Diversity Crossing

over Independent Assortment SCHEDULE HW: Finish genetics packet Tuesday: Study Guide over Transcription/translation/genetics/meiosi

s Wednesday: Review time Thursday: Test on Transcription/translation/genetics/meiosi s Friday: Start Project Tuesday, March 18th, 2014 ____________________________________________ ___ Daily Objective: By the end of today I should be able to

Explain the processes of crossing over and meiosis Entrance task: Without using your notes, Describe and draw a picture of crossing over. HAVE OUT YOUR SOAP OPERA GENETICS PLEASE

Wednesday, March 26th, 2014 ____________________________________________ Daily Objective: By the end of today I should be able to Describe what happens when chromosomes do not behave in a normal manner.

Entrance task: Please sit with your partner and have out your brochure. In your presentation, you will explain your disorder, what it causes, how it is

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