Nonverbal Communication Communication without words; communication by means

Nonverbal Communication Communication without words; communication by means

Nonverbal Communication Communication without words; communication by means of space, gestures, facial expressions, touching, vocal variation, and silence for example (DeVito) Importance of Nonverbal Communication

It is estimated that NVC most often conveys a larger share of social information(65% or more) while verbal communication plays a less salient role(35% or less). So much information is communicated nonverbally that frequently the verbal aspect is negligible. The Proceedings of The 1993 International Symposium on LTM, Beijing-Hohhot, Oct.4 13,1993 Importance of Nonverbal Communication

Communication of information is essential to support the infrastructure of society. This basic need has not changed since the first picture signs were incised on clay tablets in the Near Middle East some 6,000 years ago in order to record business transactions Rosemary Sassoon Signs,

Symbols and Icons 1997 What are the different types of Nonverbal Communication? Types of Nonverbal Communication Body Gestures and Facial Expressions

(Jeremy Wilson) Touch (Sarah Kearns) Sound (Michael Jenkins) Space (Laura Chady) Body & Facial Kinesics The study of the communicative dimensions of facial and bodily movements - Includes: body movement (body language),

gestures, facial expression, eye contact, posture, and speaking volume Body Gestures Emblems Illustrators Affect Displays Regulators

Adaptors Emblems Emblems are limited by both time and culture. Posture 1) Slumped posture = low spirits 2) Erect posture = high spirits, energy and confidence 3) Lean forward = open and interested 4) Lean away = defensive or disinterested

5) Crossed arms = defensive 6) Uncrossed arms = willingness to listen 7) Hands on hips=impatient Facial Communication Facial Management Facial Feedback Facial Expressions and Culture

Facial Management Techniques Intensifying to exaggerate a feeling Deintensifying to underplay a feeling Neutralizing to hide a feeling

Masking to replace or substitute the expression of one emotion or another Body and facial communication are important in interpersonal communication! It is especially important to pay close attention to accepted nonverbals in other cultures! Sources

Warfield, A. (2001) Do you speak body language?. Training and Development, 55(4), 60. Devito, J. A. (2001). The Interpersonal Communication Book. Hunter College of the City University of New York: Longham. Swenson, J. & Casmir, F.L. (1998). The impact of culture-sameness, gender, foreign travel, and academic background on the ability to interpret the facial expression of emotions in others. Communication Quarterly, 46(2), 214-217. Nonverbal Messages: Touch and Eye Communication

Presented by Sarah Kearns Occulesics Study of the way eyes are used during a communication exchange 3 Characteristics of Eye Messages:

Duration Direction Quality Functions of Eye Contact 1) 2) 3) 4)

5) Monitor Feedback Secure the Attention and Interest of Audience Regulate or Control conversation Signal Nature of Relationship Compensate for Increased Physical Distance Eye Avoidance Civil Inattention

Signal lack of interest Unpleasant Stimuli Heighten Other Senses Culture and Occulesics

Singh, McKay, and Singh (1998) Holistic cultures vs. Western culture Status and Confrontational Power and Occulesics Aguinis, Simonsen, and Pierce (1998) Power is the ability to influence Visual Dominance is (+)-related to credibility power Visual Dominance

The use of your eyes to maintain a superior or dominant position (Devito 2001) Credibility Power The objectively determined truthfulness, follow-through, and accuracy of a power source (Aguinis et. Al 1998) Pupil Dilation

Attractiveness Interested Emotionally Aroused HAPTICS The study of touch as a means of nonverbal

communication Most primitive form of communication Functions of Touch: 1) Positive Emotions 2) Playfulness

3) Control 4) Ritualistic 5) Task Related Touch Avoidance

Communication Apprehension Self Disclosure Gender Variation Gender Differences and Touch

Mothers vs. Fathers Same sex vs. Opposite Sex Cultural Differences and Touch Contact Culture Noncontact Culture

Haptics and Cooperation Kurzban (2001) Group Context Social Dilemmas Closeness Touch increases compliance or cooperation Conclusions

Both eye contact and touching have a variety of functions and meanings Both are subject to gender variability Both are subject to cultural variability PARALANGUAGE

Paralanguage cues are used for forming impressions, for identifying emotional states, and for making judgments of credibility, intelligence, and objectivity. Paralanguage is the vocal (but nonverbal) dimension of speech. It refers to the way you say something, rather than what you say.

By stressing different words in a sentence, you can change the meaning completely without doing anything to the structure of it. Now that looks good on you. Could you move any slower?

That was some meal. Is this the face that launched a thousand ships? Persuasion, Comprehension, and How Fast We Speak. Levels of agreeableness, intelligence and objectivity. 111wpm least amount of agreeableness, objectivity and least intelligent 140wpm average intelligence, agreeableness and objectivity. 191wpm subjects agreed most with fastest speech; viewed as

most intelligent and objective, even when the subjects knew the person was trying to sell them something. Comprehension levels in speeches at 201wpm were at about 95%, dropping only slightly to 90% when upped to 282wpm Silence

The Functions of Silence Time To Think: Time to formulate responses. Weapon To Hurt Others (the silent treatment) Response to Personal Anxiety: Remaining silent around strangers. Prevent Communication:

A defense mechanism against saying things that you cant take back in the heat of the moment. Communicate Emotional Responses: Pouting, Anger, Annoyance, Long Stares into anothers eyes; love. Achieve Specific Effects: Strategically placing pauses after or before sentences to imply importance or seriousness.

Non-verbal Communication Space and Territory Every cubic inch of space is a miracle. --Walt Whitman (Leaves of Grass, "Miracles") Proxemics Proxemics is the study of spatial communication

and how we use it (Devito) Termed coined by founder, Edward Hall, in 1968 in his book The Silent Language Halls research concluded that there are four distances we utilize in everyday interpersonal communication and these are culturally defined There are also five dimensions used to assign the importance of space in status Distances Intimate Distance-actual touching to 6-18 inches

Personal Distance-18 inches to 4 feet This includes the hidden dimension or your personal bubble Social Distance- 4 to 12 feet Public Distance-12-25 feet Definitions by Devito

Dimensions of Space (Athos) More is better than less Assign importance or status based on how much space a person has Private is better than public It is better not to have to share space We desire to exclude people to mark boundaries of our space Closing doors is an important signal that a

conversation is both intimate and important Dimensions of Space (con.) Higher is better than lower Imagery is often in terms of up and down Houses that are on higher land are often more expensive Near is better than far It is more valued to have a office near the boss

It is also more valued to be at a position near the host at a dinner party In is better than out Home field advantage in sports teams Territory Territory is the possessive reaction to a particular area or objects (Devito) Primary territorybelongs to you

Boundary markers Secondary territorynot belonging to you, but associated with you Central markers Public territoriesareas like parks that belong to all people PARALANGUAGE Paralanguage cues are used for forming impressions, for identifying emotional states, and for making judgments of

credibility, intelligence, and objectivity. Paralanguage is the vocal (but nonverbal) dimension of speech. It refers to the way you say something, rather than what you say. By stressing different words in a sentence, you can change the meaning completely without doing

anything to the structure of it. Now that looks good on you. Could you move any slower? That was some meal. Is this the face that launched a thousand ships? Persuasion, Comprehension, and How Fast We Speak. Levels of agreeableness,

intelligence and objectivity. 111wpm least amount of agreeableness, objectivity and least intelligent 140wpm average intelligence, agreeableness and objectivity. 191wpm subjects agreed most with fastest speech; viewed as most intelligent and objective, even when the subjects knew the

Comprehension levels in speeches at 201wpm were at about 95%, dropping only slightly to 90% when upped to Silence The Functions of Silence Time To Think: Your Silence communicates just as intensely as anything

you verbalize.(Jaworski 1993) Time to formulate responses. Weapon To Hurt Others (the silent treatment) Response to Personal Anxiety: Remaining silent around strangers. Prevent Communication:

A defense mechanism against saying things that you cant take back in the heat of the moment. Communicate Emotional Responses: Pouting, Anger, Annoyance, Long Stares into anothers eyes; love. Achieve Specific Effects: Strategically placing pauses after or before sentences to imply importance or seriousness.

Theories Protection theorypeople establish a buffer zone around themselves as protection against unwanted touching or attack, if threatened they want more space around them (Devito) Equilibrium theorygreater the intimacy, the closer the distance and vice versa (Devito) Expectancy violation theorypeople expect others to maintain certain distances, when these

are violated the actions are questioned (Devito) Sources Athos, A.G., Gabarro, J.J. (1978). Interpersonal Behavior. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. Bakker, C.B., Bakker, M.K. (1973). No Trespassing! Explorations in Human

Territoriality. San Fransciso: Chandler and Sharp Publishers Inc. Devito, J.A. (2001). The Interpersonal Communication Book. Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Jimenz, A.C. (2003, March). On space as a capacity. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 9(1), 137-154. http://www.members.aol.com/doder1/proxemi1.htm DeSantis, A. (2001). Communications 101, (2nd Edition).Boston, MA: Pearson Custom

Publishing. DeVito, J.A. (2001). The Interpersonal Communication Book, (9th Edition). New York: Longman. Jaworski,A. (1993). The Power of Silence: Social and Pragmatic Perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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