Division Euglenophyta 1-Chlorophyll a , b ,carotene and

Division Euglenophyta 1-Chlorophyll a , b ,carotene and

Division Euglenophyta 1-Chlorophyll a , b ,carotene and xanthophylls are dominant pigments. 2-Reserve food is Paramylum and fats. 3- Two apically or laterally placed flagella present, inserted into a narrow gullet for locomotion. 4- lack a true cell wall, and The body covered by flexible pellicle Consists

of four components: -Plasma membrane , -Proteinacous unit , -Subtending microtubules called (strips ) , -tubular cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum.( Pellicle:keep a definite shape) 5- Large nucleus and a contractile vacuole. 6- Nutrition is autotrophic or heterotrophic

7-Reproduction occurs by longitudinal cell division 8- Eyespot (stigma) - near the flagella eyespot used for sensing light and dark. 9- Only fresh water forms are present. There are approximately 1000 species of euglenoids. Euglenophyta :includes only one class Class:Euglenophyceae

Geuns: Euglena Euglenoids are typically elongate, spindle shaped organisms usually contain several chloroplasts per cell Which vary in appearance from discoid to star or ribbon shaped . The presence of a surface pellicle, which gives the cell a striated appearance , In some the pellicle is flexible while in other the pellicle is completely rigid a permanent outline to the cell. Euglanas have chloroplasts, to absorb sunlight (autotrophic).

If sunlight is not available, it can absorb nutrients from decayed organi material (heterotrophic). Ecology Certain euglenoid algae are able to tolerate extreme environmental conditions . one of these ,Euglena mutabilis ,is able to grow in very low pH waters .this algae has pH optimum of pH 3.0 can tolerate values below pH 1.0 and is typical of acidic metal-contaminated ponds and streams draining mines.

other euglenoids . Euglena can be khaki or reddish and this may change during the day. Division:Chrysophyta 1-Class:Chrysophyceae(golden algae) 2-Class:Xanthophyceae(yellow-green algae) 3-Class:Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms)

The principal Characteristics of the Chrysophyta 1. The chloroplasts contain chlorophyll a, cl and c2 ; chlorophyll b is never present. Also have accessory pigment carotene and xanthophylls . 2. The main reserve polysaccharide are chrysolaminaran, Leucosin and oil. 3- Notes the diversity flagellate systems ,The flagellate cells are Heterokont, bearing a long flagellum(Pantonematic), and a shorter smooth flagellum(Acronematic). And some species have Haptonema is a "flagellum like" structure arising from the cell apex near the other

flagella. It contains several microtubules. Its exact function is unknown, but is thought to aid in attachment, feeding, or responses. 4-The eyespot lies at the anterior of the cell, enclosed within the chloroplast. 5- Sexual reproduction varies from isogamous, Anisogamous, oogamous 7- Most of the plants are fresh water (about 75 %) and rest are marine.

Division:Chrysophyta 1-Class:Chrysophyceae(golden algae) 2-Class:Xanthophyceae(yellow-green algae) 3-Class:Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms) 1- Class: Chrysophyceae (Golden algae) The main characteristics of Chrysophyceae are: 1-is commonly known as golden algae. 2-Its a group of algae which is found in fresh water forms.

3-is unicellular or colonial. 4-The pigments are chlorophyll a, c and fucoxanthin; this fucoxanthin which give the characteristic color. 5-It stores energy in the form both as carbohydrate and oil droplets. 6-different types of cell wall covers : by cellulosic envelopes (lorica)or by silica scales , whereas others miss the outer cell wall. 7-flagella apical and unequal in length, and some species have haptonema . 8-Asexual reproduction by Binary fission, Sporogenesis.

9-Sexual reproduction isogamous ,Anisogamous, oogamous. 10-The lifecycle is haplontic. .Dinobryon sp .Example of chrysophyceae: Dinobryon sp.: Cells

Dinobryon sp are housed in individual loricae, which is funnel-shaped. Cells have two unequal flagella and one or two chloroplasts. Species are determined by lorica and colony morphology. Dinobryon are very common in freshwater lakes, and some species can be found in estuarine or coastal marine waters. Blooms of Dinobryon can have an unpleasant

Division:Chrysophyta 1-Class:Chrysophyceae(golden algae) 2-Class:Xanthophyceae(yellow-green algae) 3-Class:Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms) 2- Class: Xanthophyteceae (Yellow-green algae) The main characteristics of xanthophyteceae are: 1- Most live in freshwater, but some are found in marine and soil. 2-They vary from single-celled flagellates to simple colonial and

filamentous forms and others are multinucleate siphonal (Vaucheriales). 3- contain the photosynthetic pigments Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll c, -Carotene, and the carotenoid diadinoxanthin. 4- chloroplasts do not contain fucoxanthin 5- Its storage polysaccharide is chrysolaminarin. 6- cell walls are produced of cellulose and hemicellulose. They appear to be the closest relatives of the brown algae. 7- Pyrenoids are absent. 8- Sexual reproduction is isogamous.

9- Zoospores having unequal flagella. antheridium oogonium Vaucheria genus of yellow-green algae characterized by multinucleate tubular branches lacking cross walls (called Coenocyte ) except in association with reproductive organs or an injury. Food is stored as oil globules.

Asexual reproduction is by motile multiflagellate zoospores and nonmotile aplanospores. Sexual reproduction Both antheridia and oogonia are formed. In some forms, this happens on different filaments, - (oogonium) The spherical female sex organ -(antheridium) the slender hook-shaped male sex organ -The sperms are released from a small opening

-will swim away to fertilize an egg which they enter through a small hole in the Oogonial wall. -After the non motile egg is fertilized by a biflagellate sperm, -the zygote may enter a resting phase for several weeks before germinating into a new plant. antheridium (oogonium)

Sexual reproduction in Vaucheria. (a) An egg cell in the oogonium; (b) antheridium; (c) maturing sperm cells; (d) sperm cells emerging from the antheridium;(e) and (f) .the zygote and growth of a new filament Division:Chrysophyta 1-Class:Chrysophyceae(golden algae) 2-Class: Xanthophyceae(yellow-green algae) 3-Class:Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms)

3- Class:Bacillariophyceae The main characteristics of Bacillariophyceae are: this class are commonly known as Diatoms. are mostly unicellular or colonial algae. Both the marine as well as fresh water forms are there. The cell is golden brown in colour; the pigments are chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, Xanthophyll. The reserve food material is present as oil and chrysolaminarin.

cell wall saturated for silica material about 50% of the dry weight. Asexual reproduction produce unique types of spores called Auxopsores. A rigid overlapping cell wall is present which is known as frustule. The shell or frustule is composed of two halves; larger epitheca and smaller hypotheca. Large depositions of fossil diatoms are known as diatomaceous earth. :orders Diatoms are traditionally divided into two

(Centrales), which are Radically symmetrical. (Pennales), which are Bilaterally symmetrical. Characteristic Symmetry Centric aiatoms Radial

Pennate diatoms Bilateral Example Cyclotella,Stephanodiscus Navicula,Pinnularia

Gliding motility Non-motile Some diatoms are motile Plastids Many discoid

Two large plate-like plastids Egg cells Oogamous-production of one or two eggs per parent cell Isogamous

Sperm cells sperm per parent cell. 4-128 Each with a single flagellum bearing two rows of mastigoneme Few amoeboid, non flagellate sperm

cells Ecology Mainly planktonic ,typical of Planktonic ,epiphytic and benthic forms

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Bovine trichomoniasis in beef cattle in Wyoming, USA

    Bovine trichomoniasis in beef cattle in Wyoming, USA

    Among the 863 valid respondants, 312 actually tested their bulls. 304 producers reported that their bulls were tested as negative, and 8 producers reported their bulls were tested as positive during the past three years, which is 2.56% of the...
  • The Eighteenth Century The First Century of Peaceful

    The Eighteenth Century The First Century of Peaceful

    Septennial Act 1716 meant much longer intervals between elections - only 5 in 33-year reign of George II. Nevertheless. King controlled senior public appointments. Ministers regarded themselves as servants of king.
  • Welcome to Hour of Code™

    Welcome to Hour of Code™

    Finally, for those who want to shortcut the Hour of Code, Puzzle 4 heads straight to some levels about loops and Puzzle 7 heads straight to levels focused on conditionals. ... You may not copy, adapt, modify, prepare derivative works...
  • Mental health - cbcpsychology

    Mental health - cbcpsychology

    Mental health Vs mental illness. Mental health - capacity to interact with others, cope effectively with problems and stress. Mental health problem - when the difficulties experienced by a person are mild, temporary and able to be treated within a...
  • St. Vincent's Clinically Integrated Network: Implementation Plan

    St. Vincent's Clinically Integrated Network: Implementation Plan

    Participate in Care Coordination services across the clinically integrated network while utilizing existing case management services in the hospital, ambulatory, ED, urgent care centers and SNF ...
  • Future Perfect Continuous - WordPress.com

    Future Perfect Continuous - WordPress.com

    Do not use future perfect continuous of future continuous with non-action verbs. The future continuous may be used alone without another future time in the sentence. In this way we may use the word for to indicate the length of...


    This shows the extent to which Macbeth is troubled. The abstract noun 'fears' implies that Macbeth could be afraid of his former friend and the fact these troubles 'stick deep' suggest his comrade is constantly on his mind. It is...
  • US History Chapter 11: Lesson 1

    US History Chapter 11: Lesson 1

    Arial light-gradient US History Chapter 11: Lesson 1 Slide 2 Slide 3 Slide 4 Slide 5 Slide 6 Slide 7 Slide 8 Slide 9 Slide 10 Slide 11 Slide 12 Slide 13 Slide 14 Slide 15 Slide 16 Slide 17...