Timeline History 35,000 700 BC Paleolithic Age Ice

Timeline History 35,000  700 BC Paleolithic Age  Ice

Timeline History 35,000 700 BC Paleolithic Age Ice Age artists modeled goddesses and animal

figurines, incising lines and leaving their fingertip and fingernail impressions in the clay. Figurine creation was widespread with examples discovered at Dolni Vestonice, The Czech Republic (22,000 BC), Japan (15,000 BC), and

Siberia (12,000 BC). Earliest ceramics may have been used in social activities or religious rituals that involved the making and firing of these images. The firing event may have included the figurines and wet pieces of clay, which would

have exploded in the fire making for a dramatic yet playful performance.

Venus of Willendorf Austria C. 25,000-20,000 BC Fertility Fetish Height 4 3/8

stone Goddess of Dolni Vestonice Czech Republic

23,000 BC Clay figurine Early pottery baked in an open fire

Typically black and round-bottomed 6000 BC Middle East

Earliest signs of settled life developed on the plateaus of Turkey, Iran, and Iraq, and expanded to the Tigres Euphrates river area in Mesopotamia when people learned to practice irrigation around 5000 BC. Potters produced vessels by coiling long rolls of clay on top of a

flat base or by pressing a slab of clay over a mold, such as a round stone or gourd. A paddle and anvil were used in shaping pots. Slip coatings (fine liquid clay) were also applied to vessels and burnished to attain a smooth surface. Two pottery-making traditions

developed: plain, undecorated, dark burnished ware and ware decorated with incised or impressed designs in simple zigzag patterns and angular lines. Decorations were painted red and black with clay oxides.

Copper began to be used as well as stone. Handmade painted pottery varied from reddish

brown on a pinkish background during the early stages to plain grey, black or brown clay during

the later stage of this period. Painted terracotta vessel from Hacilar,

Turkey Chalcolithic Period 4500 BC Mesopotamia

In Mesopotamia, potters learned how to control the atmosphere in the kiln (furnace for firing clay) in order to obtain oxidation (increased oxygen resulting in red veneer). Pottery-making became more sophisticated as clays were

refined and prepared by decanting suspension (the process of adding water to clay in order to allow the larger particles and organic materials to separate out while standing and then gently pouring off the liquid without stirring up the

sediment Clay figure of woman with traces of paint,

ca. 6000 B.C., Mesopotamia, 5.11 x 4.5 cm Clay beaker decorated with geometric designs and images of ibexes,

from Susa (now Shusa, Iran), ca. 5000 B.C., 28.9 cm high; 16.4 cm diameter, During the years 6000-5000

B.C, the Pre-Sumerian period, Southern Mesopotamia massproduced pottery such as the beaker above. Vessels and other objects of fired clay were found in great abundance at

sites near the Euphrates River. They had simpleeven crude--decoration and were produced on a fast potters wheel. Wheels were used for

war chariots by this period as well. The chariots were drawn by onagers (wild donkeys). (Samuel Noah Kramer, History Begins at Sumer, University of Pennsylvania

Press, Philadelphia, 1981.) 4000 BC The First Cities, Middle East Builders in the Middle East constructed

cities using clay bricks. Officials wrote on clay tablets to chronicle city records as well as agricultural and trade information. Potters developed the pottery wheel and crafted earthenware molds, which

increased production and transformed the making of pottery. These events led to craft specialization. The story of a great Flood is

not only recorded in the Bible. The Babylonian flood account is recorded on a 4,000 yearold clay tablet. It is very similar to Noah's story, but the Babylonian story may be

much older, from even before 3,000 B.C. It is often referred to as the Gilgamesh Epic. Together with other ancient records of a great flood from

other civilizations, the story of this ancient event may have been passed down orally from generation to generation in several different civilizations.

The Gilgamesh Epic was found in an ancient Assyrian library, and is now located in the British Museum.

Babylonian flood account, 2,000 B.C. The city of Ur - in Mesopotamia around 3,000B.C.

Ur was the city where Abraham lived. It's excavation in 1922 revealed

that it was a highly civilized city, complete with a complex government, busy trade and traffic. Receipts and contracts were used in

commercial activity. The city's infrastructure includes town drains, streets, twostory houses, and a great temple tower. http://www.faithhelper.com/otarch1.htm

3000 BC First Pottery Made in South America Prehistoric people living in farming villages located in the Amazon Basin (Brazil)

created the earliest pottery known in the Western Hemisphere. This original redbrown pottery was decorated with simple lines and painted patterns. 2700 BC

The First Glaze, Egypt Egyptian potters discovered an alkaline glaze-forming clay body, Egyptian Paste or Egyptian Faience. This clay was a composite of crushed quartz mixed with

soda and calcium salts, which produced a blue-colored surface glaze when fired. Egyptian Paste was used for ceremonial vessels, jewelry, and small sculptures.

Hippopotamus, Middle Kingdom, Egypt 1784-1570 BC Blue faience/Egyptian Paste Faience is a glazed non-clay ceramic material or silica, composed of crushed quartz or sand, with small amounts of lime, and either natron

or plant ash. Its main ingredient was quartz, obtained from sand, or crushed pebbles to which

was added an alkali, a bit of lime and ground copper as colorant. Egypt is rich in silica, in the form of desert sand, but for faience-making,

certain sand sources were considered superior to others. Sand is not pure silica, as it contains impurities such as chalk,

limestone or iron. The silica forms the bulk of the body, the material from which the object shape is formed. Ground silica/sand is not easy to

form, and even though water is added to help shaping, the finished product will crumble when dry. Adding lime and soda helps to cement the quartz grains together as it dries. But the main strengthening factor

is in the firing. The body is coated with a soda-lime-silica-glaze, most commonly a bright blue-green color due to its use of copper. When fired, the quartz body developed its typical blue-green glassy

surface. Other colors were eventually possible, such as white, yellows, reds, and even marbled browns, blacks and other hues.

2655 BC Banshan Culture, China Neolithic craftsmen fashioned painted pottery jars by using the clay coil and paddling technique. After firing, burnished

surfaces were gracefully painted with red and black pigments in spiral patterns and designs. Early Chinese pottery was fired in kilns that dug into the ground.

China, Neolithic period, Majiayao culture, Banshan type, late-3rd millennium BC Height: 17 1/2 inches, 44.5 cm China, Neolithic period, Majiayao culture, Banshan

type, mid-3rd millennium BC Height: 19 inches, 48.2 cm Narrow-necked jar with vertical handles Chinese, Majiayao culture, Neolithic period, mid-3rd

millenium B.C 2500-1500 BC Jomon Period, Japan Jomon (cord impressions) ware made

throughout Japan during the Japanese Neolithic Age. It was characterized by elaborate coil-built vessels fashioned from unrefined clay. The clay often contained organic matter, pebbles, and shell fragments that added textural excitement to

the wares coil construction. Elaborate flaring tops, fanciful rims, and cross-hatching contributed to the visual drama of this distinctive style.

The Jomon Period 10,000-300 BCE Japan Early Jomon

(Rope Pattern) Pottery Middle Jomon Period Pottery

Middle Jomon Period Pottery

Forms of JOMON Narrow-bottomed, flaring tops of Jomon used for ceremonies and religious rituals

2500-1100 BC Minoan Culture, Crete On the island of Crete, Minoans used terra-cotta pipes in drainage systems for their baths. They built huge vessels, more than five feet tall, to

store grain, olive oil, and food. Their pots were distinctively decorated with naturalistic designs of marine life and plants. Masterful sailors, the Minoans traded pottery vessels filled with oil and wine for tin from Asia Minor, copper from

Cyprus, and luxury goods from Egypt. Map of Mediterranean Jug from Ayios

Onoufrios. Early Minoan I or beginning of Early Minoan II c. 2500. Clay.

Beak spouted cup. Early Minoan 2200-2000 BC A beaker jug in Kamares style

Middle Minoan IIA 1800 BC. Original Minoan

Flask, 13 1500BC Minoan octopus Vase

1500BC Minoan Amphora 1500 BC

3 Handled Octopus Vase Minoan

Original Pythos (storage vessel) 16" (40 cm) Tall 1450 BC

Original Minoan Amphora 1200BC

Mycenaen Amphora Mycenaen Amphoras King Minos lived in the Palace of Knossos on the

Island of Crete in the Mediterranean Sea The Palace of Knossos The palace of the Minoan king on the

island of Crete, in the town of Knossos. These ruins are amazingly well preserved from about

1700 BC. The Palace of Knossos Knossos-throne-room

Pithois-large storage jars found at the Palace of Knossos PITHOI

Pottery from the Palace of Knossos

Snake Goddess Crete 1600 BC 1600-1100 BC

Shang Dynasty, China The Bronze Age potters of the Shang dynasty developed highly sophisticated casting techniques. They used fired clay molds to cast elaborate bronze vessels. Kilns continued to be built in the ground, and the earths

natural insulation increased fuel efficiency. The development of effective chimneys also improved kiln technology. Around 1400 BC, the first stoneware (highly- fired pottery) was made using kaolin, a white primary clay, found in large deposits in China. During the

protoporcelain (before porcelain) period, potters learned how to use wood ash in combination with minerals, such as silica and alumina, to achieve a successful glaze.

Shang Dynasty pottery Shang An exceptionally rare Neolithic period Chinese

pottery Li (tripod vessel), which dates to the Yangshao Culture, approximately 5th/3rd Millenium BC A rare ancient

Chinese black pottery three-legged pot, known as a li, which dates to the Shang dynasty, over 3,000

years ago. Covered hu-type vessel with animal-mask (taotie) design Chinese, Shang dynasty, 12th century B.C

Ceramics of the past Section 2 1200 500 BC Olmec Culture, Middle America

The Olmec culture, centered in the eastern gulf coastal region of Mexico, is thought to be the earliest civilization on pre-Columbian Central America. The jaguar, believed to be a god, was the center of the Olmec religion. Many of their stone sculptures and

molded clay figurines depicted were-jaguars, halfhuman, half-jaguar beings. Olmec baby figures alone with were-jaguars were believed to be earthly forms of gods. These earthenware baby figures, which were produced in great numbers, are thought to represent infant offerings to the rain god who symbolized rebirth

and regeneration, or perhaps, they represent, the rain spirits themselves. Olmec Culture In South America, the

were-jaguar is a legendary creature with an ancient lineage and formidable pedigree.

Often, these beings were portrayed as shamans who were favored by the jaguar god.

Olmec Culture Olmec Double Jaguar Carving Mexico, Ca. 400 BC. 4",

Olmec Culture, Figure of a ruler 1000-600 B.C.

Ritual ballplayer 1500-1000 B.C. The Road to Eldorado

1100 400 BC Chavin Culture, South America The Chavin people lived in the central Andean region of South America. They introduced the

whistle jar (which whistled when the jars contents were poured out) and the stirrup vessel. Both were thought to have been used in funeral ceremonies and buried with the dead, Chavin style was the precursor for the Peruvian cultures.

Whistle Jar Fluid moving from one chamber to another displaces air in the second chamber which is forced across the sounding edge of a whistle.

Whistle Jar Chavin Culture, Stirrup Vessels,

Peru, South America Famous for their whistling jays Chavin Culture

Stirrup Vessels, Peru, South America Chavin Culture,

Stirrup Vessels, , Peru, South America Machu Picchu

700 BC Black-Figure Technique, Greece This elegant style of two-color thematic decoration

employed the use of a black slip to paint heroic and mythical figures on a red clay background. Artists detailed features and fine lines by scraping through the slip with sharp tools to expose the lighter clay beneath. By controlling the amount of oxygen in the

kiln, artists were able to achieve a glossy black and red decoration. Greek Amphora Black Figure Painting

600 BC Red-Figure Technique, Greece This style of decoration used reserves, or unpainted figures. The reserves retained the color

of the red clay while the black firing slip was used to paint fine details on the figure and around the reserves. The striking red figures stood out from the black background when a firing sequence of reduction followed by oxidation was used.

Greek Amphora Red Figure Painting 700 400 BC

Life-sized Terra-Cotta Sculpture, Italy Etruscans molded and painted brilliant colored lifesized terra-cotta figures to decorate their temples and sarcophagi.

This small (5.5 inches high) terracotta sculpture was made in Greek southern Italy in the late fourth century BCE. It depicts two adolescent girls playing the game of "knucklebones" (astragaloi in Greek). The game was usually played like the modern game of "jacks": one threw the knucklebones in the air and attempted to catch as many as possible. They were also used like modern "dice." Most

knucklebones were made out of the actual ankle bones of sheep or goats, but fancier ones were made of ivory, bronze, or terracotta. This sarcophagus shows an Etruscan man and his wife reclining on a couch, as at a banquet, embracing. (In Etruscan culture, both men and women attended

feasts, something that shocked the Greeks who were used to male-only symposia.) She pours perfume from an alabastron into his hand, an action associated with funerary rites, and it's possible that her left hand originally held a pomegranate, symbol of eternal life. While the large size of the artefact suggests it was a sarcophagus, it might also have been a large cinerary urn - both

inhumation and cremation were used by the Etruscans. Ishtar Gate Babylon (IRAQ) Glazed tiles

600 BC Tin-Lead Glazes, Middle East Persian, Assyrian, and

Babylonian walls and buildings were decorated with glazed tile reliefs. Potters added tin oxide to lead glazes to achieve a white background on the red clay for painting colored decorations. Later,

they made intricate, multicolored tiles by using raised lines of slip, which kept glaze colors from running into each other during the firing. Hanging Gardens of Babylon

China Tomb of the Terracotta Soldiers 221 -202 BC

Life-sized Terra-Cotta Sculpture, Qin Dynasty, China It was the Chinese custom for the dead to be buried with food, pottery, and other items thought to be needed in the afterlife. Excavations near

Emperor Qins imperial tomb unearthed an army of 7000 life-sized soldiers with their weapons and horses. There realistic, painted terra-cotta figures (each face was an individual portrait) demonstrate astonishing skill in both ceramic sculpture and

firing technique. African sculpture 300 BC AD 1400

Life-sized Terra-Cotta Sculpture, Africa In western Africa, the Nok (300 BC), followed by the Ife (800 BC AD 1400), developed

great technical skills in clay as they fashioned and fired life-sized terra-cotta human figures. Nok sculptures are distinguished by purity of form and decorative restraint. Ife figures embody idealized naturalism. Ife craftsmen were skilled in bronze casting by the eleventh century

and expertly produced ceramic crucibles and molds. Found in north central Nigeria off the edge of

the Jos plateau. The oldest known example of terracotta sculpture in

Africa, south of the Sahara. Dates from 2500-800 B.P (500 BC to 200

AD). Ife Ife Sculpture

Copper Head Nigeria, Late 14th Century 206 BC AD 221 Han Dynasty, China

The Han dynasty was the beginning of a united Chinese Empire. During this period, the silk trade reached from the East Roman Empire to India and Persia. Chinese potters probably acquired the art of lead glazing from these contacts. Clay vessel shapes were based on bronze

originals and decorated in similar fashion with cut relief and applied handles and bands. An extensive amount of Minqui (tomb pottery) was produced consisting of pottery models of family and servants, buildings, grain towers, farm animals, and vessels for food and drink to accompany the deceased

to the spirit world. Han Dynasty double-handle tripod caldron pottery

Ancient Glazed "Celadon Green" "Hun'ping" Funerary Urn/Spirit Jar 300 A.D. Han Dynasty Bronze Funerary piece

Towered Pavilian Chinese Han Dynasty 206 BC-220 AD

Model of goat yard and herdsman Han Dynasty, 2nd 3rd Century Silla Period Korea

57 BC AD 935 Silla Period, Korea The pottery of this period was strongly influenced by the Chinese. Potters produced ash-glazed

stoneware and lead-glazed earthenware. 100 700 AD The Mochica Culture, South America

The Moche civilization flourished on the north coast of Peru. Although their culture had no writing system, Moche potters recorded historical and mythological events, and narrated their life and customs on richly decorated ceremonial pots.

Expert artists, the Moche modeled figures and fashioned portrait vessels, stirrup jars, bird-shaped whistle jars, and musical instruments. Moche Culture: sacrifice of warriors

(1 AD - 800 AD) This piece shows how defeated warriors were brought to islands on rafts to be sacrificed there. Moche portrait vessel

200 AD Feldspathic Glazes, Yueh Ware, China During this period, potters discovered a leadless

glaze compound made of feldspar, sand, potash, quartz, and other ingredients that required high temperatures to fuse. The first feldspar-glazed stoneware, Yueh ware (a precursor of Celadon ware) was distinguished by colors ranging from

pale gray-green to bluish-green on a white porcelaineous clay body. Yueh vessels imitated the bronze styles of the Han dynasty. Eastern Jin dynasty (ca. 317-420), second half of 4th century

Stoneware with celadon glaze (Yue ware); H. 7 1/2 in. (19.1 cm) 200 BC AD 476 The Roman Empire, Europe The Romans brought a number of technological innovations

to Northern Europe. They introduced the potters wheel, produced relief-decorated ware from molds, and developed large, parallel flue kilns. Workshops were turned into factories as great quantities of pottery were mass-produced for their growing cities and large armies. They manufactured

fired-clay building materials, such as bricks, roof tiles, ceramic floor tiles, and decorative ornaments. Arrentine ware a red gloss ware, was the most common Roman pottery. It was made in stamped molds, covered with a fine red slip terra-sigillata and fired in an oxidizing atmosphere

to achieve a glossy, rich red finish. Rome Terra sigillata as an archaeological term refers chiefly to a specific type of plain and

decorated tableware made in Italy These vessels have glossy surface slips ranging from a soft lustre to a brilliant glaze-like shine, in a characteristic colour range from pale orange to bright red.

The products of the Italian workshops are also known as Arretine ware Roman red gloss terra sigillata bowl with relief decoration

Terra sigillata beaker A decorated Arretine vase

200-600 Haniwa Figures, Japan Japanese potters made unglazed earthenware Haniwa figures. These

figures, mounted on clay cylinders, were sculpted, impressionistic representations of men, women, animals, or buildings. It is thought that the Haniwa were placed around burial mounds to protect the

deceased and to keep the mounds from eroding. Haniwa: man figure

playing a harp, Tumulus period 300-980 Classic Period, Teotihuacan, Mexico

Clay artists in Central Mexico produced a variety of hand built and molded pottery. They used the fresco, an unfired technique, to decorate magnificent tripod ritual vessels. These decorations were

symbolic motifs painted in brilliant colors on thin layers of stucco or plaster that covered the fired vessel. Teotihuacan style ceramic from Tomb of Curl Nose

MEXICO CITY: A tiny remotecontrolled camera peered inside the tomb of a Mayan ruler that has been sealed for 1,500 years, revealing red frescoes, pottery and pieces of a

funerary shroud made of jade and mother of pearl. Codex style vase with sixty hieroglyphs 700-900 AD

618-906 Tang Dynasty, China During this period, one of the richest eras of Chinese art and learning, ceramic art reached

an outstanding level of achievement. Tang potters produced and exported dense white porcelain ware. Earthenware figurines, decorated with lead glazes colored yellow (iron), blue (cobalt), and green (copper), were

produced in tremendous quantities for tomb furnishings. These models were constructed from parts that were molded separately and assembled with clay slip. Tang models are striking in their naturalism and vitality.

Tang Dynasty Tang Dynasty Tomb Pottery Prancing Horse

Horse, Tang Dynasty 8th Century Horse Tang

Dynasty 8th Century Horse Detail

Tang Dynasty 8th Century Camel with Musical Instrument pipa

7th century Earthenware with white ivory glaze Tomb Guardian

Tang Dynasty Earthenware with three color glaze Painted human-faced animal tomb-guardian

in the Zhaoling Mausoleum Tang Dynasty Incense Burner Tang Dynasty

6th-7th Century 632-1150 Early Islamic Wares, Middle East

Islamic potters were never able to produce porcelain because the clays in this region were deficient in high-firing minerals. In their attempts to imitate Chinese Tang imports, they made spectacular breakthroughs in glaze technology. They used a glaze made of

ashes of tin over earthenware clay to get a white opaque glaze upon which they painted designs with various coloring oxides. Cobalt, the most popular oxide, gave a rich blue color to the designs. (This blue and white combination would later be imitated by the Chinese.) they discovered and perfected luster painting, a glazing technique in

which a metallic pigment, such as silver, copper, gold, or platinum, is applied over an already fired glaze. A metallic film appears in the surface of the piece when it is fired again under lower temperatures in a reduction atmosphere. Islamic potters mastered the secret of under glaze painting by coloring a clay slip, similar in composition to

the clay body, with metallic oxides. This made the painting strong enough not to disappear under a liquid glaze. Iraq tin glazed earthenware with

blue and white decoration 9th century. Chinese later used Porcelain to recreate

this look. Cobalt was exported from the Middle East Early Chinese blue

and white porcelain, manufactured circa 1335 Blue and white ware-vase,

China Tang Dynasty Meiping, China Blue and White ware (cobalt blue on porcelain)

Early Islamic Nishapur slip-painted bowl 900-1000 AD Luster-ware bowl from Susa, 9th century

LustrewareLustre painted baluster jar 1100-1300 AD Central Asia

800-1400 Southwest Indian, North America Three main cultures inhabited the southwest; each produced distinctively stylized decorated pottery. The

Hohokam, who occupied southern Arizona, developed a culture based on irrigation farming. Their red-on-buff pottery was characterized by an out swept curving line from the vessels mouth to form an abrupt inward curve to the foot. The Anasazi of northern Arizona and New

Mexico, Southern Colorado and Utah were superior builders of pueblos (multiple unit houses). The Anasazi produced precisely decorated black-on-white pottery. The Mogollon, who inhabited southwestern New Mexico, linked the Southwest and Mexico. Their pottery is

characterized by great simplicity and limited variation of forms. Southwest Indian Mogollon Pottery

Anasazi Pottery Anasazi Pottery

950-1325 Mayan Post-Classic Period, Middle America The Mayan people flourished on the Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala, and El

Salvador. They recorded their history in hieroglyphics on stone slabs. Early Mayan pottery was strongly influenced by that of Teotihuacan (Mexico). Later, Mayan potters molded terra-cotta figures

depicting gods, nobility, acrobats, warriors, ball players, and ordinary men and women performing domestic chores. Vase with appliqued snakes

Maya, Late Classic period, A.D. 550850 Human effigy incense burner or cache vessel Maya, Postclassic period, A.D. 12501500

918-1382 The Koryo Dynasty, Korea Decorated Celadon ware best exemplifies the work of this time, the Golden Age of Korean ceramics. Slip-filled incised

patterns under a celadon glaze, Punchong ware (or Mishima, as called by the Japanese), was an important, new, distinctively Korean, decorative technique. Naturalistic motifs of ducks, grasses,

willows, and flowers were used to suggest spiritual calm an beauty. KOREAN PORCELAINOUS STONEWARE CELADON BOWL, Koryo dynasty, 935-1392

KORYO DYNASTY INLAID CELADON BOWL Korea, 12th/13th Centuries

Korean pottery Punch'ong bottle vase Choson Dynasty 15/16th

Korean pottery Punch'ong 1000

Early Stoneware, Germany German potters in the Rhine Valley had an abundance of good clay and a bountiful supply of wood for their kilns. The clay contained a high sand content, which

allowed it to tolerate high temperatures without collapsing. This combination enabled potters to produce stoneware. Early Stoneware, Germany

960-1279 The Song Dynasty, China Song potters were masters of harmonious, wellproportioned form, and they beautifully refined vessel shapes. The fashion for porcelain (a

high-fired white translucent ware that makes a musical sound when struck) began with the Song emperors, who were patrons of the arts. Porcelain, however, was only a small part of Song production. Most pottery made during this

time was stoneware. Song pottery is divided into two categories: northern and southern. 960-1127 Northern Song, China

Several different styles were prominent during this period. Among them were Ting ware, a glazed porcelaineous body that featured a smooth, ivory white glaze over delicately impressed or engraved motifs;

and Tzu-Chou ware, a light gray-colored stoneware covered with white slip and vigorously painted with dark brown or black decoration.

Northern Song Dynasty Ting Ware (Ding ware) http://qingci.org/?p=672

Shallow Bowl Ding Ware 12th Century A fine and rare

carved 'ding' bowl. Northern Song dynasty

Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD) ding-ware porcelain bottle with iron-tinted pigment under a transparent colorless glaze, made in the 11th century, found in Hebei province Water Vessel

Ding Ware 8th- 10th Century Northern Song Dynasty Tzu-Chou ware

(Cizhou ware) si-zsh-u Cizhou" green-glazed painted vase (Meiping), 11 3/8 inches high,

Northern Song/Jin Dynasty " It has an estimate of $30,000 to $40,000. It sold for $74,500.

Wine Bottle 12th Century Northern Song Cizhou Ware

Southern Song Dynasty Celadon 1128-1279

Southern Song, China Glaze development expanded during the Southern Song period. Some of the more popular glazes were: Celadon, a translucent green or green-blue color originally made to imitate jade; Tenmoku, a thick, dark brown glaze

breaking to lighter brown; and Oil Spot, which appeared to have oil spots breaking on the surface. Crackle, a glaze having a network of deliberate surface crack, was also developed during this time. Two types of kilns were used: a single-chambered, downdraft, bee-hive type and

the dragon kiln, a tunnel built into a hillside. Later, the dragon kiln was divided into many sections or chambers, which allowed large quantities of pottery to be fired at the same time but at different temperatures in the different sections. Individual saggars (fire containers) were used

to stake the ware and to protect each pot from ashes from the wood which fueled the kiln. Sky blue glaze porcelain incense burner, Jun ware Southern Song Dynasty A.D.960-1127

Southern Song dynasty, Kuan ware, celadon glazed porcelain Song Dynasty

Jun Kiln Porcelain Zun Vessel Bluish-white glazed bowl with kids playing pattern Southern Song Dynasty

Tenmoku Glazes Tenmoku Yohen refers to changes that take place in the kiln, and it is also used for Bizen, where the

glaze runs during firing. Sometimes this is called a "hares-fur" effect. Yohen also refers to the build-up of ash on the kiln floor and the natural glazing brought about by this ash. Yuteki is an oil spot effect that occurs when

there is an overload of iron oxide which is allowed to cool slowly and forms effulgent spots on the surface. It is a very difficult technique. Tenmoku (or temmoku) is the name used by potters and

ceramic restoration experts to describe glazes that are richly colored by iron dioxide. Tenmoku is the Japanese word for a type of tea bowl first produced in China during the Song Dynasty (960-1279).

Southern Song Dynasty Oil Spot Glazes Chinese pottery

ewer, oil spot glaze, Song Dynasty Oil Spot temmoku

Southern Song Dynasty Crackle Glaze Five celadon libation cup, crackle glaze, fluted mouth with

dragon handle, old collectors number on bottom, Song Dynasty, height 3 Southern Song dynasty (11271279) Porcelaneous stoneware with crackled blue glaze

The shard market with Song Dynasty saggers lined with fused translucent porcelain bowls. The End

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