Upper Airways of Respiratory Tract Laryngopharynx is lowermost

Upper Airways of Respiratory Tract  Laryngopharynx is lowermost

Upper Airways of Respiratory Tract Laryngopharynx is lowermost portion of pharynx Air breathed and/or swallowed passes through laryngopharynx Swallowed materials pass through esophagus to get to stomach Air travels through larynx and trachea on its way to lungs Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e

Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Upper Airways of Respiratory Tract Larynx (voice box) Semirigid structure composed of cartilage connected by muscles and ligaments that provide movement of vocal cords to control speech Adam's apple (thyroid cartilage) is largest of cartilages found in larynx

Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Upper Airways of Respiratory Tract Larynx (voice box) Cricoid cartilage lies beneath it, providing structure and support for airways so they do not collapse Glottis is opening that leads into larynx and eventually lungs

Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Upper Airways of Respiratory Tract Epiglottis Leaf-shaped flaplike fibrocartilage Closes over opening to larynx when you swallow; opens up when you breathe, as part of swallowing

reflex (glottic or sphincter mechanism) Seals so food does not enter lungs Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Upper Airways of Respiratory Tract Vocal cords act as dividing line between upper and lower airways Lower airway starts below vocal cords

Upper airway ends at vocal cords Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Upper Airways Common cold Caused by over 200 different strains of viruses Causes acute inflammation of upper respiratory mucous membranes

Treated by managing symptoms Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Upper Airways Common cold Can be prevented with good hand washing Should not be confused with colds, allergies or the flu (which are

different diagnoses) Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Table 13-2 Comparison of Asthma, Cold and Influenza Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e

Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Upper Airways Sinusitis Infection and inflammation of sinuses by viruses or bacteria Causes pressure, pain, headaches Tonsillitis Inflammation, swelling and pain of tonsils May require tonsillectomy if

severe Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Upper Airways Pharyngitis Sore throat Strep throat caused by streptococcus bacteria Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health

Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Upper Airways Laryngitis Inflammation of voice box Characterized by hoarseness and loss of speech Caused by infection or excessive use of voice Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health

Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Figure 13-8 The upper airway and related infections. Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Upper Airways Acute epiglottitis Potential airway emergency

infection that causes swelling of epiglottis and airway obstruction Typically caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B Most common in children ages 2 to 6 (incidence decreasing since introduction of Hib vaccine) Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Upper Airways

Acute epiglottitis Symptoms: acute swelling of epiglottis, fever, sore throat Onset rapid; requires rapid treatment Treatments: maintain airway, antibiotics Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection:

The Upper Airways Laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB) Infection of laryngeal area characterized by noisy breathing, especially on inspiration Symptoms Barking cough Inspiratory stridor (high-pitched sound often heard without using stethoscope) Disease was previously called croup Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health

Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Upper Airways Sleep apnea Breathing stops during sleep Caused by soft tissue at back of throat relaxing and blocking airway Can cause fatigue during day Long-term, undiagnosed sleep apnea can cause other health problems (high blood pressure, weight gain,

and headaches) Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Upper Airways Sleep apnea Diagnosed during sleep study, where patient monitored while sleeping Treatment: special pillows and positioning patient that help to keep airway open; weight loss may

reduce severity More severe obstructive sleep apnea may be treated with oral appliances, breathing devices, or surgery Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Lower Respiratory Tract Resembles upside-down tree, sometimes called tracheobronchial tree From vocal cords, air enters

trachea, or windpipe, 4 long tube lined with ciliated mucous membrane Trachea extends from cricoid cartilage of larynx to sixth thoracic vertebrae Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Lower Respiratory Tract C-shaped cartilage found in anterior portion of trachea provide rigidity and protection

for exposed airway in neck Esophagus lies in area where C opens up posteriorly; room for esophagus to expand when you swallow larger chunks of food Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Figure 13-9 The tracheobronchial tree. Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health

Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Lung Animation Click on the screenshot to view an animation of the anatomy of the lungs. The animation may take a moment before playing. Back to Directory Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Lower Respiratory Tract

Trachea largest pipe; can be thought of as trunk of tree Trachea begins branching (bifurcating) at center of chest into left and right mainstem bronchi (bronchus is singular form) Mainstem bronchi (primary bronchi) Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee

The Lower Respiratory Tract Site of bifurcation is called carina Next bronchi must branch into five lobular bronchi; correspond to five lobes of lungs Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Lower Respiratory Tract Each lung lobe further divided

into specific segments; next branching of bronchi called segmental bronchi At point from trachea down to segmental bronchi, tissue layers of bronchi are all the same, only smaller, as they branch downward Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Lower Respiratory Tract

Epithelial layer contains mucociliary escalator Middle is lamina propria layer which contains smooth muscle, lymph, and nerve tracts Third layer is protective and supportive cartilaginous layer Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Figure 13-10

Tissue layers in the bronchi. Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Lower Respiratory Tract Branching becomes more numerous with tiny subsegmental bronchi that branch deep within each lung segment Cartilaginous rings become more irregular and eventually fade away As we move towards gas exchange regions airways simplify to make it

easier for gas molecules to pass through Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Lower Respiratory Tract Bronchioles average 1 mm in diameter No cartilage layer; epithelial lining becomes ciliated cuboidal cells (short squat cells as opposed to large columns)

Cilia, goblet cells, and submucosal glands are almost all gone There is no gas exchange yet Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Lower Respiratory Tract Terminal bronchioles have average diameter of 0.5 mm, no goblet cells, cartilage, cilia, or submucosal glands at this point Terminal bronchioles mark border

between conducting and respiratory zones Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Lower Respiratory Tract Next airways beyond terminal bronchioles are respiratory bronchioles, because some gas exchange occurs here

Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Lower Respiratory Tract Epithelial lining is simple cuboidal epithelium interspersed with alveoli-type cells called simple squamous pneumocytes Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee

The Lower Respiratory Tract Alveolar ducts originate from respiratory bronchioles, wherein walls of alveolar ducts are made up of simple squamous cells arranged in tubular configuration These give way to alveoli Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee

Figure 13-11 Conduction and gas exchange structures and functions. Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Lower Respiratory Tract Alveoli are terminal air sacs, surrounded by numerous pulmonary capillaries Together capillaries and alveoli make up functional unit of lung known as alveolar capillary membrane

Adults have 300600 million alveoli, with total of 80 square meters (m2) surface area for oxygen molecule to diffuse across into capillaries Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Lower Respiratory Tract Blood from right heart entering pulmonary capillaries is high in carbon dioxide and low in oxygen Conversely, carbon dioxide is

high concentration in blood in pulmonary capillaries and very low in lung Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Lower Respiratory Tract Gas exchange takes place and pulmonary capillary increases in oxygen concentration before traveling to left heart to be

pumped around to tissues Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Components of Alveolar Capillary Membrane Four distinct components of alveolar capillary membrane First layer is liquid surfactant layer that lines alveoli; this phospholipid helps lower surface

tension in alveoli that would otherwise collapse Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Components of Alveolar Capillary Membrane Second component is tissue layer, or alveolar epithelium, comprised of simple squamous cells: Majority (95%) of alveolar surface

is flat, pancakelike cells called squamous pneumocytes (Type I cells); gas molecules easily pass through in gas exchange Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Components of Alveolar Capillary Membrane Second component is tissue layer, or alveolar epithelium, comprised

of simple squamous cells: Type II cells, or plump, granular pneumocytes, produce surfactant and aid in cellular repair Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Components of Alveolar Capillary Membrane Second component is tissue layer, or alveolar epithelium, comprised

of simple squamous cells: Type III cells, or wandering macrophages, ingest foreign particles as they wander through alveoli Pores of Kohn are small holes between alveoli to allow movement of macrophages between alveoli Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Components of Alveolar

Capillary Membrane Third component of alveolar capillary membrane is interstitial space Area separates basement membrane of alveolar epithelium from basement membrane of capillary endothelium and contains interstitial fluid Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee

Components of Alveolar Capillary Membrane Third component of alveolar capillary membrane is interstitial space Space so small that membranes of alveoli and capillary appear fused If too much fluid gets into space (interstitial edema), it separates, making it harder for gas exchange to occur Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health

Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Components of Alveolar Capillary Membrane Fourth component is capillary endothelium (simple squamous epithelium) that contains capillary blood and RBCs Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee

Pulmonary Function Testing Measures lung function in terms of volumes and flows Measuring lung volumes Patient is instructed to First, breathe normally Then, take maximum deep breath followed by maximum exhalation Various volumes recorded Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e

Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Figure 13-12 Normal lung volumes and capacities. Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pulmonary Function Testing Lung volumes Tidal volume (VT): amount of air that moves into or out of lungs in normal breath; normal volume is

about 500mL (varies by age, sex, height, and general fitness) Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pulmonary Function Testing Lung volumes Functional residual capacity (FRC): volume of air remaining in lungs at end of a normal expiration

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV): amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after normal inspiration Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pulmonary Function Testing Lung volumes Expiratory reserve volume (ERV): amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after normal

expiration Residual volume (RV): volume of air remaining in lungs after maximum expiration Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pulmonary Function Testing Lung volumes Vital capacity (VC): maximum amount of air that can be move

into and out of respiratory system in single respiratory cycle Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pulmonary Function Testing Flow rates Measure flow rates coming out of lung at various points during forced (maximum patient effort) vital capacity (FVC)

Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pulmonary Function Testing Flow rates FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 second Normal person can exhale 7585% of their FVC in 1 second Someone with obstructive lung disease takes longer to exhale;

can exhale less than 70% of their FVC in 1 second Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pulmonary Function Testing PEFR: peak expiratory flow rate Maximum flow rate or speed of air person can rapidly expel after taking deepest possible breath Measured in liters per minute; should fall within predicted range

Good test to reflect how larger airways functioning; monitor diseases such as asthma Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Spirometry Video Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of spirometry. Back to Directory Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e

Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways Atelectasis Condition in which air sacs of lungs either partially or totally collapsed Cause may be patient who cannot or will not take deep breaths to fully expand lungs, keep passageways open, stimulate production of surfactant

Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways Atelectasis Surgery, pain, injury of thoracic cage often makes deep breathing painful Patients who cannot cough up secretions also at risk for atelectasis

Buildup of secretions can lead to pneumonia within 72 hours Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways Pneumonia Lung infection caused by virus, fungus, bacterium, aspiration, or chemical inhalation Results in inflammation of

infected area with accumulation of cell debris and fluid Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways Pneumonia Some pneumonias actually destroy lung tissue Severe pneumonia can result in

death Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Figure 13-13 General locations for pneumonias. Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection:

The Lower Airways Tuberculosis (TB) Infectious disease that thrives in high oxygen areas such as lung Tubercles (lesions) form in lungs Bacteria can lay dormant for years Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways

Tuberculosis (TB) Unchecked, vast lung damage can occur Treated with medication; recent concern about form of tuberculosis very resistant to drugs normally used to treat TB; high mortality rate Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee

Tuberculosis Video Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of tuberculosis. Back to Directory Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) General term for conditions

associated with Cough Sputum production Dyspnea Airflow obstruction Impaired gas exchange Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways Chronic obstructive pulmonary

disease (COPD) Fourth leading cause of death in the United States Group of diseases in which patients have difficulty getting all the air out of lungs; often have large amounts of secretions and lung damage Combination of emphysema and chronic bronchitis Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee

Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways Asthma Chronic inflammatory illness of airways; 25 million people in the United States Most common chronic disease of childhood and younger adults; 80% of cases developing before age 45 Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee

Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways Asthma Potentially life-threatening lung condition Airways of lungs constrict (bronchospasm) often in reaction to allergy Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee

Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways Asthma Difficult to get air in; even more difficult to get air out of lungs Gas trapping: inability to get air out of lungs Lowers amount of oxygen in blood and increases blood levels of carbon dioxide Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health

Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways Asthma Controlled with use of medication Symptoms: episodic wheezing, shortness of breath, cough, and chest tightness Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e

Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways Asthma Common triggers: allergens, inhalants, viruses, cold air, and exercise Chronic disease Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee

Figure 13-14 Asthma and emphysema. Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Table 13-3 Asthma and COPD Diseases Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e

Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Table 13-4 Triggers for Asthmatic Attacks Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways Emphysema

Anatomically as the permanent, abnormal enlargement of distal airway spaces and destruction of alveolar walls Nonreversible lung condition; alveolar air sacs destroyed and lung itself becomes floppy Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection:

The Lower Airways Emphysema Becomes more difficult for gases to diffuse between lungs and blood Lung tissue becomes fragile; easily rupture Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways

Emphysema Two million persons in the United States; majority of cases caused by smoking 60,000 to 100,000 have a genetic deficiency of alpha1-antitrypsin (1-AT) Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Table 13-5

Diagnostic Markers to Differentiate COPD and Asthma Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways Chronic bronchitis Productive cough, enlargement of mucous glands, hypertrophy of

airway smooth muscle Acute bronchitis: temporary and common lung condition; can affect people of any age Differs from chronic bronchitis; reversible and no permanent structural changes Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways

Chronic bronchitis Nine million persons in the United States; cigarette smoking major causative factor Increase in size and number of mucus-secreting glands Narrowing and inflammation of small airways Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee

Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways Chronic bronchitis Obstruction of airways caused by narrowing and mucus hypersecretion Bacterial colonization of airways Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways

Chronic bronchitis Acute episodes brought on by respiratory tract infection May undergo repeated episodes of respiratory failure; frequently develop right-sided heart failure Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways

Smoking major preventable cause of many respiratory diseases Primary etiology of COPD Smokers have more lung-function abnormalities Smokers show more respiratory symptoms Smokers experience all forms of COPD at much higher rate than nonsmokers Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee

Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways Smoking major preventable cause of many respiratory diseases Age of starting, total pack-years, puff volume, current smoking status predictive of COPD mortality Passive smoking seems to increase risk Children of parents who smoke higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and ear infections than children of nonsmokers Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health

Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: The Lower Airways Smoking major preventable cause of many respiratory diseases (cont'd) Air pollution, occupational exposure, asthma, and nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness play role in development of COPD

Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Housing of the Lungs and Related Structures Lungs reside in thoracic cavity and are separated by region called mediastinum, which contains esophagus, heart, great vessels, and trachea Breathing in and out causes lungs to move within thoracic cavity

Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Housing of the Lungs and Related Structures To prevent irritation of lungs moving against thorax, each lung wrapped in sac or serous membrane called visceral pleura Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health

Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Figure 13-15 Structures of the thoracic cavity. Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Housing of the Lungs and Related Structures Thoracic cavity and upper side of diaphragm lined with continuation

of membrane called parietal pleura Between these two pleural layers is pleural space (intrapleural space), which contains slippery liquid called pleural fluid that reduces friction as individual breathes Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: Pleural Space Problems

Pneumothorax Air inside thoracic cavity but outside lungs Air can enter thoracic cavity from two directions Stab wound or gunshot wound to chest would allow air to rush into thoracic cavity from outside Lung might develop leak as result of structural deformity or disease process Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee

Pathology Connection: Pleural Space Problems Pneumothorax If air cannot escape, it fills space meant for lungs and prevents lung expansion required for breathing Can be life-threatening situation Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee

Pathology Connection: Pleural Space Problems Pleural effusion Buildup of fluid in pleural space between parietal and visceral pleura Fluid may be pus (empyema), serum from blood (hydrothorax), or blood (hemothorax) Fluids affected by gravity; pleural effusions tend to move to lowest point in pleural space

Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Pathology Connection: Pleural Space Problems Pleural effusion If effusion large enough, it can have same effect as a large pneumothorax, restricting lung expansion Pleural effusions can be treated by inserting chest tube inserted

into pleura space to allow drainage of fluid Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Figure 13-16 Pneumothorax (sucking chest wound) and technique for performing thoracocentesis. Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee

The Lungs Lungs Conical-shaped with rounded peaks (apex) extending 1 to 2 inches above clavicle Base of lungs rest on right and left hemidiaphragm with right lung base a bit higher to accommodate liver Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee

The Lungs Lungs Medial surface concave cavity called cardiac deeper on left of lung has deep, that holds heart, impression, and is side

Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Lungs Lungs Hilum is area where root of each lung is attached, containing mainstem bronchus, pulmonary artery and vein, nerve tracts, and lymph vessels Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health

Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Lungs Lungs Right lung has three lobes: upper, middle, lower lobes; divided by horizontal and oblique fissures Left lung has one fissure, oblique fissure, and therefore has only two lobes: upper and lower lobes Lingula is area of left lung that corresponds with right middle lobe

Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Lungs Lungs Left lung has only two lobes because largest part of heart is located in left lung area Right lung is larger, with 60% of gas exchange occurring here Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health

Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Protective Bony Thorax Bony thorax Bony and cartilaginous frame providing freedom of movement Protects organs of chest Includes rib cage, sternum, and thoracic vertebrae to which each rib attaches Sternum, or breastbone, is centrally located; comprised of manubrium, body,

and xiphoid process (important landmark for CPR) Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Protective Bony Thorax Bony thorax 12 pairs of ribs (thoracic cage) True ribs (pairs 17): called vertebrosternal; connect to sternum and vertebrae Pairs 810: called false ribs or

vertebrocostal; connect to costal cartilage of superior rib and to thoracic vertebrae Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee The Protective Bony Thorax Bony thorax 12 pairs of ribs Ribs pairs 11 and 12: floating ribs, with no anterior attachment;

only attach to vertebral column Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Figure 13-17 The thoracic cage. Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee How We Breathe

Respiratory control center is in medulla oblongata Inspiration: active process in which diaphragm is sent signal via phrenic nerve, causing it to contract and flatten downward, increasing thoracic cavity space Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee How We Breathe

Increase in thoracic cavity volume decreases pressure, creating lower pressure in lungs than outside, allowing air to rush into lungs Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee Figure 13-18 How we breathe. Anatomy, Physiology, & Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health

Professionals, 2e Bruce J. Colbert Jeff J. Ankney Karen Lee

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    Recognize the duties of lookouts. During a ships entire life there is always sailors on watch. Whatever type of watch the sailor must devote their full attention to their watch. The watches keep the ship running smoothly 24 hours a...
  • The Past and Future of Robotics - University of Maryland ...

    The Past and Future of Robotics - University of Maryland ...

    CMSC 479/679 May 3rd, 2010 ... The Past and Future of Robotics Author: Tim Oates Last modified by: Tim Oates ... Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Company: University of Maryland Baltimore County Other titles: Arial MS Pゴシック Helvetica Times...
  • Engineering Economy - Mercer University

    Engineering Economy - Mercer University

    Future Worth Analysis. Future worth analysis is similar to present worth analysis, expect that all cash flows are normalized to some future point in time. Future worth is often used if an asset is to be sold at some future...
  • The Atom

    The Atom

    Lewis dot structure: A diagram that uses dots to show the valence electrons of a molecule. This structure shows where the electrons will be shared between atoms Lewis dot symbol: A diagram that uses dots to show the valence electrons...