Nation and Memory in Russia, Poland, and Ukraine

Nation and Memory in Russia, Poland, and Ukraine

Nation and Memory in Russia, Poland, and Ukraine Lecture 15 Soviet Nationality Policy Week 7, Spring Term Outline 1. Soviet nationality policy 2. Ukrainians in the Soviet Union 3. Russian nationalism and Soviet patriotism 4. Conclusion

Putzger, Historischer Weltatlas, p. 122 f The Soviet Union: Facts, Descriptions, Statistics (published by the Soviet Information Bureau, Washington 1929) Nationalities The population of the U.S.S.R. is composed of 182 different nationalities, speaking 149 different languages or dialects. Under the census of December, 1926, the following thirty nationalities composed 97.6 per cent of the total population: Russians 77,760,100 52.9 Ukrainians 31,194,800 21.2 White-Russians (West-Russia)

4,739,900 3.2 Kazaks 3,959,900 2.7 Uzbeks (Central Asia) 3,904,500 2.6 Tatars (Middle Volga and Crimea) 3,015,200 2.0 Jews 2,600,900 1.8 Georgians (Transcaucasia) 1,821,200 1.2 Azerbaijan Turks 1,706,600 1.2

Armenians (Transcaucasia) 1,567,500 1.1 Mordvinians (Middle Volga) 1,340,400 0.9 Germans (Lower Volga) 1,238,500 0.8 Chuvashes (Middle Volga) 1,117,400 0.7 Tajiks (Central Asia) 978,200 0.7 Poles (chiefly Ukraine and White Russia) 782,300 0.5 Kirghizes (Central Asia)

768,700 0.5 Turkomans (Central Asia) 766,100 0.5 Bashkirs (Ural) 713,70 0 0.4 Votyaks (Eastern Russia) 504,20 0 0.3 Man (Eastern Russia) 428,20 0 0.3 Chechens (Northern Caucasus) 392,60 0 0.3 Moldavians (Southwestern Ukraine) 278,80 0 0.2

Ossetes (Caucasus) 272,20 0 0.2 Karelians (Northwestern Russia) 248,10 0 0.2 Meshcheriaks (Eastern Russia) 242,60 0 0.2 Buryats (Eastern Siberia) 237,50 0 0.2 Komi 221,30 0 0.2 Circassians (Northern Caucasus) 219,00 0 0.2 Yakuts (Eastern Siberia)

214,80 0 0.2 Greeks (South Russia and Ukraine) 213,80 0 0.2 From the Soviet Information Bureau, 1927 Korenizatsiya ("putting down roots") nativization or indigenization Promoting representatives of titular nations of Soviet republics and lower levels of territorial subdivisions of the state into local government, management, bureaucracy

and nomenklatura in the corresponding national entities. National in form, socialist in content (1920s)

Cultural autonomy for Soviet nationalities Territorial principle: rights linked to the territory, not to the individual Soviet Union as a federation of republics Nation building of titular nations: preferential treatment Regional and local autonomy But: has to be socialist in content Unifying effect of Communist Party Greatest danger for the Soviet Union Russian nationalism, not nationalism of other national/ethnic

groups (Lenin) Suppression of Russian nationalism Outline 1. Soviet nationality policy 2. Ukrainians in the Soviet Union 3. Russian nationalism and Soviet patriotism 4. Conclusion Soviet nationality policy (1930s) National communism seen as a threat (especially in Ukraine), as a deviation from socialism

Measures against national-communist leaders in Soviet republics Central authority re-established But: nation building in republics not stopped, but their extent is reduced http://www.holodomor.org/ The Pyramid of National Soviets, 1932-1938

1932 1938 1. Soviet Union 1 2. Federal republic 2 3. Union republic 7 4. Autonomous republic 15 5. Autonomous oblast 16 6. Autonomous okrug 10

7. National district 290 8. National village soviet 7,000 9. National kolkhoz 10,000 10. Personal nationality 147,027,915 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Soviet Union 1 Federal republic 1 Union republic 11 Autonomous republic 16 Autonomous oblast 8 Autonomous okrug 10 7. Personal nationality 161,753,176

Terry Martin, The Affirmative Action Empire. Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923-1939 (Ithaca, London 2001), p. 413 Nationality Policy and the Great Terror

Fascism and growing nationalism in Europe: move against diaspora minorities: Poles, Germans, Koreans, Romanians, Latvians and other Elimination of potential irredentist movements enemy nations National operations during Great Terror: deportation of diaspora nations Tens of thousands of members of national elites killed

Reducing national complexity: many national territorial units dissolved (Polish, German and other local and regional Soviets/units) Soviet nation building now limited to key nations Outline 1. Soviet nationality policy 2. Ukrainians in the Soviet Union 3. Russian nationalism and Soviet patriotism 4. Conclusion The rehabilitation of Russian history

Rehabilitation of Russian history in connection with etatist move of Soviet Union No longer Russian nationalism, but nationalism of other ethnic/national groups seen as greatest danger for Soviet Union Partly russification, national (for example

Ukrainian) version of history could be taught as long as it was compatible with friendship with Russia Socialism and shared Russian culture (brother nation) as unifying element Ivan IV was an outstanding political figure of sixteenth-century Russia. He completed the establishment of a centralized Russian state, a progressive endeavor initiated by Ivan III. Ivan IV fundamentally eliminated the countrys feudal fragmentation, successfully crushing the resistance of representatives of the feudal order All of these reforms met with vigorous resistance on the part of the

representatives of the feudal order entrenched patrimonial estateholders, tenaciously insisting on the preservation of the feudal order. Ivan the Terrible was forced to resort to harsh measures in order to strike at the feudal patrimonial privileges of the boyars. Excerpt from A. S. Shcherbakov, Memorandum to Stalin concerning A. N. Tolstois play Ivan the Terrible (1941-1943), Kevin M. F. Platt and David Brandenburger (eds), Epic Revisionism. Russian History & Literature as Stalinist Propaganda (Madiscon, Wisconsin, 2006), pp. 179-189. Outline 1. Soviet nationality policy 2. Ukrainians in the Soviet Union 3. Russian nationalism and Soviet patriotism 4. Conclusion

Russians in USSR: 1920s give up Russian nationalism and adopt Soviet patriotism and idea of socialist fatherland 1930s rehabilitation of Russian nation - Russian nationalism and Soviet patriotism go hand in hand Ukrainians in USSR: defeat in state building wars 1918-20: satisfied with Ukrainian Socialist Republic as part of Soviet Union or resistance against Soviet/Russian oppression? Collectivization and Ukrainian famine as traumatic experiences. Poles in USSR:

Minority rights in 1920s, in 1930s enemy nation, executions (ca. 100,000) and deportation

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