An Overview of American Indian Diversity Exhibiting Native

An Overview of American Indian Diversity Exhibiting Native

An Overview of American Indian Diversity Exhibiting Native American Cultures: Points of Contact Museum Studies Special Topics, A460/560 Larry J. Zimmerman, Ph.D., RPA Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis The functional prerequisites of culture

People Language Territory/Technology Social Organization Ideology (belief systems) The People America's native population in 1492

Most people lived south of the Rio Grande River with total hemispheric populations as high as 75,000,000 North Americalower populations Henry Dobyns 18,000,000 Ubelaker & Thornton 1,800,000 Thornton7,000,000 Most now accept that on the eve of European Contact populations was less than 10,000,000

Huge depopulation impact from diseases Diseases in New World and Old World Endemic: TB, dysentery, staph and strep Epidemic: smallpox, measles, diphtheria, typus, typhoid, bubonic plague, malaria 1815-1816: Smallpox killed 4,000 out of 10,000 Comanche Early 1830s: Pawnee lost half of their population of 20,000, Mandan, Arikara, Hidatsa from 35,000 to under 2,000 Smallpox an ancient childhood disease

1700s: 10-15% deaths in Western Europe 80% of deaths under the age of 10 70% under the age of 2 Impact: 90-95% Mortality What were the effects and repercussions of epidemic devastation? Major shifts in social life, family life, economy, politics, religion, psychology

What were the effects and repercussions of epidemic devastation? Major shifts in social life, family life, economy, politics, religion, psychology Many long-term traditions lost See Timeline of European Disease Epidemics Among Americ an Indians

Images Both from Jaune Quick-to-See Smith Top: Paper Dolls for a Post-Columbian World with Ensembles Contributed by the U.S. Government, in the Eiteljorg Museum Bottom: Famous Names Who gets counted as being Indian? Self-Identification

Card-carrying Indians and tribal rolls Blood quantum DNA US Census: Person having origins in any of the original peoples of North, Central and South America and who maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment. Includes people who self-reported American Indian and Alaska Native or wrote their principal or enrolled

tribe Race on the 2000 census is by self-identification Examples of group identity criteria Enrollment requirements Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez, 1977 Supreme Court ruled that no federal agency or any entity except an Indian tribe could determine who

its people are. For even longer, the Sup. Ct. has held that Indian nationhood & tribal citizenry are political, not racial matters An exercise of Tribal SOVEREIGNTY Blood Quantum Navajo 1/4 Lineage Social/Cultural connection to the community? Speak the language? Have a name from the tribe? Cherokee: Eastern Band: 1/16 Blood quantum

Oklahoma bands: lineage Tribes didnt always have BQ enrollment requirements: Used to adopt other members from other tribes or non-Indians Kinship rather than blood Enrollment evolved to provide fair distribution of benefits: land, resources, voting, compensation, etc. Contemporary Populations

The 10 Largest American Indian tribal groupings in the US Total Reporting: 2,475,956 100%

281,069 269,202 108,272 105,907 87,349 59,533 57,060 51,913 45,212

11.4% 10.9 4.4 4.3 3.5 2.4 2.3 2.1

1.8 Cherokee Navajo Sioux Chippewa Choctaw Pueblo Apache

Lumbee Iroquois All other tribal groupings More than 1 tribe rptd No tribal affiliation rptd 753,406 52,425

511,960 24% 2.1 20.7 Physical Variation StereotypicRed-brown skin, dark brown eyes, prominent cheek bones, straight black hair, and scantiness of beard

but huge variation Skin colorVery light in some tribes, as the Cheyenne, to almost black in others, as the Caddo and Tarimari. In a few tribes, as the Flatheads, the skin has a distinct yellowish cast. Hairvaries dramatically in amount, texture & color EyesGenerally dark Body shapegreat variation in height, weight, physique Blood typegenerally O

Other featuresshove-shaped incisors, Inca bones, but these are variable Languages Distribution of Native American Languages Language Variation For such a small population, Indian languages

are extremely diverse. 57 families grouped into 9 macro-families or phyla 300 distinct languages 2000 dialects Californiaat least 20 families West of Rockies17 more Rest of the continent20 more

Today English is the most commonly spoken language, and many native languages are gone or will soon be so. Territory and Technology Indian Views of Land Stereotypes abound regarding Indian views

of land. Generally: Land could not be individually owned Land could be controlled by family units, such as clans The operating principle was usufruct The earth was sacred and to be cared for, but it could be used, albeit carefully. Mother Earth seems a common concept,

but it has been called into question. Sacred places were a key; sacredness can be difficult to understand From Chief Seattles speech 1854 * Suquamish Chief Seattle

Every part of this soil is sacred in the estimation of my people. Every hillside, every valley, every plain and grove, has been hallowed by some sad or happy event in days long vanished. Even the rocks, which seem to be dumb and dead as the swelter in the sun along the silent shore, thrill with memories of stirring events connected with the lives of my people, and the very dust upon which you now

stand responds more lovingly to their footsteps than yours, because it is rich with the blood of our ancestors, and our bare feet are conscious of the sympathetic touch. *For complete text of the speech see Do be aware that there is controversy about this speech. See About the Chief Seattle Speech.

Dawes Severalty Act. (1887) "The common field is the seat of barbarism, while the separate farm is the door to civilization. Sen. Henry Dawes, Massachusetts He also noted that selfishness was the root of advanced civilization, and he could not understand why the Indians were not motivated to possess and achieve more than their neighbors

Henry Dawes Congress sought to break up Indian communal lands by giving Indian families 160 acres of land, backed by a 25-year tax-free trust from the government. At the end of the term, Indians could either keep the land or sell it. In 1887, the tribes had owned about 138 million

acres; by 1900 the total acreage in Indian hands had fallen to 78 million See the precise language of the law at http:// Assorted land images For information about Indian views of land and environment, see Native Americans and the Environment.

The Culture Area Concept Cultures Areas or Food Areas? The Problem with Culture Areas Actually, these categories have entered into the popular culture in a big way. They are now the main descriptors of Indian groups.

One needs to question whether it is still a useful concept: It may be that it locks Indian groups in time, using descriptions of groups at the time of Contact. Pan-Indian cultural activities and massive influences of media have "blended" lots of cultural traits.--Plains and Southwest stereotypes are dominant Doesn't account for the ability of groups to adjust

to white and other Indian influence. Social Organization Kinship was the social organization core for most Indian nations Small scale societies Initially after first habitation, small populations

of hunters and gatherers were the norm. Most were nomadic, with small populations of +/- 200 Major unit was extended family, usually patricentric Microband/macroband seasonality Groups were nearly acehpalous (without a head), but leaders developed with achieved status

Mostly egalitarian, with rule by consensus These patterns survived until well past European Contact especially in marginal areas or those with minimal contact. Hunting and Gathering Life Settled village life Greater emphasis on gathering and use of cultivars caused

changes circa 7,000 years ago Cultivars and intensive gathering allowed small surpluses Surpluses allowed larger surpluses and more settled life In the rich eastern woodlands, Primary Forest Efficiency allowed substantially larger populations (+/- 1000) Beginnings of social stratification

Still kinship based and some use of micro/macroband in marginal areas Kin based, clan structured organization still mostly patricentric Horticulture has a 3000 year history in Indian Country Horticulture brought major changes

After 3000 BP, emphasis on domesticated plants allowed greater surpluses With surpluses came dramatic population growth (100030,000) in villages and cities Gardening shifts cultural emphasis to matricentric Large populations keep clan structures, but often added a layer of social control at chiefdom level Social stratification became substantial A shift toward urban life Emergence of pre-state structures

Courses toward urban life At Contact, there was immense diversity A very wide range of social organizations and political ideologies at European Contact Social organization ranged from nomadic, patricentric, egalitarian hunters and gatherers with completely kin-based systems to nearly urban, socially stratified, matricentric

horticulturalists with both kin and non-kin-based systems. Much of this broke down during the next 500 years. Social organization is still in flux. Changes in Social Structure since Contact Detribalization, migration, and urbanization Reservation and social structure Kinship and the family

Political resurgence - reservations as a power base Contemporary political organization - tribal and urban The Indian Wars: Resistance was futile The Reservation Period

Churches attacked both family structure and belief systems Boarding Schools attacked family structure Boarding School Blues1 Words and Music by Floyd Red Crow Westerman You put me in your boarding school filled me with your White mans rules

Be a fool ay hey hey hey heya You put me in Chicago one cold and windy day Relocation Extermination ay hey hey hey heya You took me from my home, my friend Think Ill go back there again

Wounded Knee Want to be free ay hey hey hey heya2. The Depression and the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 Indians as U.S. citizens, 1924

President Calvin Coolidge with four Osage Indians after Coolidge signed the granting Indians full U.S. citizenship The impact of World War II Getting something back: The Indian Claims Commission US1946

Canada1991 but with earlier versions since 1927 Termination and Relocation Activism and the resurgence of tribal power 1970s Activism

Casinos and economic resurgence Ideology Pre-contact belief systems Animatism: belief in a supernatural power not part of supernatural beings Animism: belief that natural objects are animated by spirits

the spirits are thought of as having identifiable personalities and other characteristics such as gender Everything in nature has a unique spirit or all are animated by the same spirit or force Both present in some societies For Native Americans, animism dominates We see some evidence in material remains, but most information comes from post-Contact ethnography

Variations Ancestral spirits After death, spirits retain an active interest and even membership in their family and society. Like living people, they can have emotions, feelings, and appetites. They must be treated well to assure their continued good will and help to the living.

Gods/goddesses Powerful supernatural beings with individual identities and recognizable attributes Rare in Native AmericaCreator, Mother Earth, but these are often ill-defined Hero/trickster figures Beings with some supernatural abilities such as transformationcoyote, raven, spider are

examples Time and Cosmology The power of the circle Cyclical nature of time The sacred directions Sacred colors Ojibwe lodge

Medicine Wheels abound on the Plains Quillwork medicine wheel Pawnee lodge Belief system change did occur

Beliefs form a stable core, but do adapt to natural and social environments Example: Old vs new Lakota beliefs Inyan Kararock maker White Buffalo Calf Woman and the spread of the calumet (pipe)

Bison herd near Wind Cave, where Iktomi tricked the people into coming from the underground Post-Contact ideology Contact and syncretism Nativistic movements The Good Message of Handsome Lake A syncretic combination of traditional Seneca and Quaker beliefs and practices Purpose: to draw the Seneca back toward

the old ways and to protect them from whites Revitalization movements The Ghost Dance (see Edison 1894 film) Wovoka with Plains delegation

Bole-maru, California Pawnee ghost dance drum The Christian struggle for control Grants reservation policy and churches Boarding schools and breakdown of families Bans on many religious practices

Woodrow Crumbow--Sundance The Native American Church Peyote song: Primeaux and Mike Peyote cactus

For a good history, see the Religious Movements page on NAC American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978 Title 42 - The Public Health and Welfare

Chapter 21 - Civil Rights SubChapter I - Generally American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978 1996. Protection and preservation of traditional religions of Native Americans On and after August 11, 1978, it shall be the policy of the United States to protect and preserve for American Indians their inherent right of freedom to believe, express, and exercise the traditional religions of the American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, and Native Hawaiians, including but not limited to

access to sites, use and possession of sacred objects, and the freedom to worship through ceremonials and traditional rites. Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Pan-Indian Trends Powwow

Gathering of Nations, Albuquerque Eklutna (Alaska) Annual Powwow Crow Fair, Montana

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