Early Earth and Origins of Life Formation of

Early Earth and Origins of Life Formation of

Early Earth and Origins of Life Formation of our Universe 10-20 billion years ago Bacteri a Eukary Archae a a Formation of our solar system and Earth 4.6 billion years ago Cooling of Earth, formation of oceans, hospitable environs

3.9 billion years ago Formation of cenancestor (LUCA) 3.6 to 4.1 billion years ago Emergence of 3 Domains: Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya 2.5 billion years ago common ancestor (cenancestor/LUCA) Hypotheses of Early Life: cenancestor formation (4 main phases) 1. Abiotic synthesis

(inorganic --> organic) Oparin & Haldane hypothesis (1920s) Urey & Miller (1953) Joining of monomers > polymers Fox (1950s-60s) Packaging of protobionts Oparins hypothesis (1920s) Fox (1950s-60s) Self-replicating molecules Cech (1980s) Altman (1980s) Hypotheses of Early Life: Cenancestor formation (4 main

phases) 1. Abiotic synthesis (inorganic > organic) Oparin & Haldane hypothesis (1920s) Urey & Miller (1953) Joining of monomers > polymers Fox (1950s-60s) Packaging of protobionts Oparin hypothesis (1920s) Fox (1950s-60s) Self-replicating molecules Cech (1980s) Altman (1980s)

Abiotic synthesis: Early Earth environment Oparin & Haldane Hypothesis (1920s) No O Reducing environment favors 2 synthesis CO NH H H O CH H S Lightning, UV irradiation, etc. Primordial Soup hypothesis 2 3

2 2 4 2 Miller and Urey, 1953 Bottom flask heated > vaporization Electric sparks applied to top flask Ran for 1 week Results:

Water became pink, then red, and turbid Analysis of contents reveals organic compounds amino acids (alanine and glycine) sugars lipids building blocks of nucleic acids Stanley Miller, Age 23 Hypotheses of Early Life: Cenancestor formation (4 main phases)

1. Abiotic synthesis (inorganic > organic) Oparin & Haldane hypothesis (1920s) Urey & Miller (1953) Joining of monomers > polymers Fox (1950s-60s) Packaging of protobionts Oparin hypothesis (1920s) Fox (1950s-60s) Self-replicating molecules Cech (1980s) Altman (1980s) Sydney Fox: Simple polymers

(1950s) amino acids (monomers) Heat Hot sand, clay, rock polypeptides (polymers) *dripped amino acids over hot sand, clay, rock and found that given the proper conditions, monomers would join to form polymers *in same manner were able to form proteinoids (a type of protobiont) as outlined in next section Hypotheses of Early Life: Cenancestor formation

(4 main phases) 1. Abiotic synthesis (inorganic > organic) Oparin & Haldane hypothesis (1920s) Urey & Miller (1953) Joining of monomers > polymers Fox (1950s-60s) Packaging of protobionts Oparin hypothesis (1920s) Fox (1950s-60s) Self-replicating molecules Cech (1980s) Altman (1980s)

Protobionts: aggregates of abiotically produced molecules surrounded by membrane Oparin (1920s) coined the term bubble hypothesis Sydney Fox (1950s-60s) demonstrated with proteins as membrane (proteinoids) Maintain internal chemical environment separate from surroundings Some properties associated with life reproduction- can duplicate & divide metabolism- can take up substances;

can set up simple metabolic reactions inside Protobionts synonyms and different names depending on what membrane is made of: coacervates, proteinoids, micelles, liposomes, microspheres Liposome formation Amphiphilic lipids form micelles and liposomes Hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and

hydrophobic (water-hating) tails selfassemble in agitated H2O Can grow and shrink in the presence of salts Protobionts: fossil evidence 3.5 billion years ago Hypotheses of Early Life: Cenancestor formation (4 main phases) 1. Abiotic synthesis (inorganic > organic) Oparin & Haldane hypothesis

(1920s) Urey & Miller (1953) Joining of monomers > polymers Fox (1950s-60s) Packaging of protobionts Oparin hypothesis (1920s) Fox (1950s-60s) Self-replicating molecules Cech (1980s) Altman (1980s) Ribozymes & the RNA World Ribozymes = RNA as an enzyme RNA-directed catalysis discovered in nature (1980s)

Tom Cech - self splicing introns Syndey Altman - tRNA cleavage Self-replicating Ribozyme (2001) RNA polymerase ribozyme made in lab R Ribozymes & the RNA World RNA may have been the first genetic material RNA simpler than DNA error-prone polymerization produces mutations- diversity in offspring

natural selection of offspring with more efficient catalysis leads to evolution idea that enzymatic activity appears first and specificity evolves later Ribozymes & the RNA World Modern precedent for idea of RNA as selfreplicating genetic material RNA viruses: RNA as sole genetic material (no DNA intermediates) RNA molecules involved in many types of polymerization in modern cells Telomere (DNA end structures)

replication Ribosome and tRNA (Translation) What is missing from early Earth atmosphere that we need in order to progress to the 3 Domains? Early Earth and Origins of Life Formation of our Universe 10-20 billion years ago Bacteri a Eukary Archae a

a Formation of our solar system and Earth 4.6 billion years ago Cooling of Earth, formation of oceans, hospitable environs 3.9 billion years ago Formation of cenancestor (LUCA) 3.6 to 4.1 billion years ago Emergence of 3 Domains: Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya 2.5 billion years ago common ancestor

(cenancestor/LUCA) Hypothesis: Going from Cenancestor to 3 Domains I. Prokaryotes oxygenate the atmosphere cellular metabolism evolved in prokaryotes first organisms are chemoheterotrophs no oxygen in atmosphere (so anaerobic) only food is organic matter in primordial soup Domains

I. Prokaryotes oxygenate the atmosphere second to evolve are simple autotrophs give off oxygen as by product this leads to the oxygenation of atmosphere some hypothesize that these were photosynthetic Cyanobacteria-like organisms third to evolve are heterotrophs that use oxygen (aerobic) Hypothesis: Going from Cenancestor to 3 Domains I. Prokaryotes oxygenate the atmosphere

This is the Heterotroph Hypothesis: chemoheterotrophs > autotrophs > heterotrophs no O2 present produce O2 use O2 Hypothesis: Going from Cenancestor to 3 Domains II. Going from prokaryotes to eukaryotes Cytoplasm How we got organellesthe hypothesis DNA

Plasma membrane Ancestral prokaryote Infolding of plasma membrane Endoplasmic reticulum Nucleus Nuclear envelope Engulfing of aerobic heterotrophic prokaryote

Cell with nucleus and endomembrane system Mitochondrion Mitochondrion Ancestral heterotrophic eukaryote Engulfing of photosynthetic prokaryote in some cells

Plastid Ancestral Photosynthetic eukaryote Hypothesis: Going from Cenancestor to 3 Domains II. Going from prokaryotes to eukaryotes First, membrane in-folding created endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus Hypothesis: Going from Cenancestor to 3 Domains II. Going from prokaryotes to eukaryotes Endosymbiotic Theory

second, endosymbiosis led to formation of mitochondria and chloroplasts mitochondria from heterotrophic (aerobic) prokaryote chloroplasts from photosyntheti c prokaryote (Cyanobacteri a?)

Modern evidence for Endosymbiotic MitochondriaTheory and chloroplasts are prokaryote-like

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