Using Crop Residues Efficiently in Crop/Grazing Areas in

Using Crop Residues Efficiently in Crop/Grazing Areas in

Using Crop Residues Efficiently in Crop/Grazing Areas in a Fossil Fuel Hungry World By Ron A Leng, Emeritus Professor, UNE. Sponsored by YLAD Living Soils. Why use crop residues such as straw-1? 1) Considerable amounts are wasted [ burned] a] No contribution to SOIL C and N fixation b] Increases greenhouse gas emissions per unit of meat/wool production c] Eventually legislation will stop the burning of crop stubbles 2) Straw with technology inputs can support a] Maintenance in mature animals in dry period or early pregnancy [rumen nutrients] b] Weight gain in weaners or breeding stock [RN plus bypass protein] c] Considerable weight gain in fattening stock [with treatment, processing and supplementation] d) And faecal materials can be returned to the soil as fertilizer 3) Straw generally has few toxic components and is a useful supplement to:

a] dilute plant and fungal toxins prevent endophyte toxicity, phalaris staggers etc b] reduce incidence of bloat on legume pastures c] capture nitrogen surplus to rumen needs that would be otherwise passed in urine d] dilute high nutrient content pasture materials Why use crop residues such as straw-2? 4) Expensive oil will increase the cost of crop production and drought and dry season feeding with grain, lupins and hays will be prohibitively expensive 5) Use of byproducts such as straw, oat hulls corn stover and cobs to feed ruminants can offset some of the increased costs of fertilizers, tillage, transport and marketing 6) Annually -35 million tonnes of straw produced in Australia could feed 7 million cattle or 70 million sheep Essential approach to future agriculture as fuel prices rise Minimise energy use in agriculture

Minimal tillage Maximise recycling and microbiological sources of nutrients Optimize water use for crop production Minimize soil erosion and soil mineral runoff. Optimize the use of available resources for animal use [pastures, agro-industrial byproducts and crop residues] Diversify production for local consumption Production Forecast 50 Gboe 40 30 20 10 0

1930 1950 Conventional Oil Heavy 1970 1990 Deepwater Polar 2010 NGL 2030 Gas 2050

Non-Con Gas Discovery Trend The Growing Gap Confirmed by Exxon-Mobil 60 Discovered 50 Futue Discovery Gb 40 Production 30 20 10 0 1930

1950 1970 1990 2010 2030 2050 Summary of World Oil Supplies 1 Oil use in the world has increased to around 80 million barrels/day or 1 billion barrels are used every 12 days All the major oil fields were discovered long ago

and many have exceeded Peak Production and are in decline. Spare capacity is about 2 million barrels per day The discovery of large oil fields [that is>0.5 billion barrels or 60 days of world requirement ] has dwindle to zero, small finds are occurring but not at a sufficient rate and global oil production capacity is contracting by over 1 million barrels each day every year. Summary of World Oil Supplies 2 Demand for oil ,particularly by China, India, Pakistan and some Latin American countries is increasing at unprecedented rates. Each year global demand is expected to increase by 1 million barrels per day Result: Oil will be a scarce and

expensive resource in years to come 2007-2008 is most likely time for massive increase in oil prices Production will drop by 3-4 million barrels/day New capacity coming on line will increase by 8 million barrels/day Spare capacity would be 4 million barrels/day Therefore 3-4 years of increasing demand, which is likely to be 1 million barrels /day each year, will wipe out any potential surplus and severe oil shortages will occur These predictions do not allow for a sudden drop in Saudi Oil or disruption to supply by natural disasters, war, terrorism or political upheaval etc Price Shocks - the first signs Five times what it costs to produce

70 Brent Crude US $ 60 50 Shocks as production capacity limits breached 40 30 20 Prices rise then crash with recessions 10 0 1996 1998 2000

2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Where are the likely most sensitive areas Environment and global warming [greater use of coal] All forms of transport

Car makers and subsidiaries Tourism Food/goods transport Natural resource movement [coal, ores etc] Wars on terror [USA spends approx $20/barrel for protection of its supply] All food producing systems Social structures Suburbs v City v Self Sustaining communities Most significant effects of scarce and expensive oil. Gradual, permanent cut-off of fuel for transport and for industrial machinery. Global trade will greatly decline. Decline in agricultural production--depends heavily

on fertilizers and chemicals made from oil. Food shortages, increased by competition for food crops as feedstock for bio-fuels such as vegetable oil and alcohol Changes in land use as inputs decline and crop yields are lowered. Shortages of 500,000 other goods made from oil. Therefore, reduction of virtually all business and government activity. Very serious unemployment The most serious area may be a downturn in agriculture and food production 1 In the developed countries. Reduced industrial scale farming with single crop such as corn and soybean.

Return to permaculture incorporating microbial activities for fertilisers and recycling of nutrients [requiring more people in agriculture] Social restructuring of rural, city and suburban communities Production of home grown fuels and competition for food, feed and feedstock for local consumption and export The most serious area may be a downturn in agriculture and food production 2 Developing countries: down turn in staples greater need for small integrated systems

dependent on recycling of nutrients What happens when another Rwanda or Dufur[2.4 million refugees presently without support] erupts in a future world with few food reserves? The need for fuel for cooking could result in deforestation and erosion in countries such as Nigeria In developed countries approximately 1400 liters of oil equivalents are expended to feed each citizen; energy consumption is broken down 31% manufacturing inorganic fertilizers 19% operation of field machinery 16% transportation 13% for irrigation

8% raising livestock [not feed lot feed] 5% crop drying 5% pesticide production 8% other inputs Does not include energy costs of packaging, refrigeration,transport to outlets and energy for cooking World Fertilizer Use 19602004 160 Millions of tonnes 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 10

Earth Policy Institute 2005 8 2005 2002 1999 1996 1993 1990 1987 1984 1981 1978

1975 1972 1969 1966 1963 1960 Grain production, Million tons/ ton fertiliser World Grain Production Per Ton of Fertilizer Use-1960-2004 35 30 25

20 15 10 5 0 US Farm Energy Use Total energy use 1,691trillion btu Direct 1,113 t-Btu Pesticide plus fertilizer 578 t-Btu Pesticide Production Irrigation 6% 7%

Fertilizer production 29% Diesel fuel 25% Electricity 18% Earth Policy Institute 2002 LPG 5% Gasoline 9% Natural gas 1% US Food System Energy Use Total 10.25 quadrillion btu Home

Refrigeration/Prep aration 31% Transport 14% Restaurants/Cater ers 7% Food retail 4% Packaging 7% Earth Policy institute AgriculturalProdu ction 21% Processing 16%

How the US Farm policy is seen by Peter Nicholson Australian July 31st 2003 Use of energy for grain production "modern" vs "traditional" systems 12 Energy per unit grain, MJ/kg 10 8 "Modern" 6 4 "Traditional" 2 0 USA (rice) UK (wheat)

China (rice) Bangladesh (rice) USA (maize) Philippines (rice) Latin A (rice) Source: Pretty 1995 Cereal grains and root crops will have diversified markets World production 1900 million tonnes annually Food for humans Feed for animals--- one third of all cereals are fed to livestock Feedstock-------about 20% of the US maize crop is now used for ethanol production. GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF BEEF, PORK AND POULTRY 1968 - 2003 100000 90000 Pork

80000 MT 000 70000 60000 50000 Beef 40000 30000 20000 Poultry Meat 10000 0 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 Calendar Year Trends in the world use of

cereal grain as feed for livestock 1000 900 800 700 Feed grain 600 requirements 500 [Million MT] 400 300 200 100 0 925 592 1983 Developed world Delgado et al 2002

660 636 1993 1997 Developing world Total 2020 Alcohol Production [bln litres] World ethanol production by country. USA is likely to become the worlds largest producer using maize as the feedstock 45 40 35 30

25 20 15 10 5 0 EU India Thailand China Cananda USA Brazil Berg C[2003]World biofuel production Int. Sugar J, 1 [1] 5-15 Fuel Alcohol Despite Doubtful Energy Balance Will Have Enormous Effects On World Food Availability World total production of alcohol 33 billion

liters USA is to lift its production to about 16 billion liters Many countries are contemplating establishing fuel alcohol production. A guess at possible production is 100 billion litres by 2010 O.43 liter alcohol requires fermentation of 1kg dry grain or roughly 2.5 kg grain /liter Potentially 250 million tonnes of grain will be needed for alcohol production Ethanol Inducing Policies are being applied widely in the world World Cereal Stocks [Estimated total carryover of cereals] 700 600 500 Millions of 400 tonnes 300

200 100 0 '98 '99 Total cereals FAO Rome 2004 '00 '01 Coarse grains '02 Wheat '03 Rice

'04 The price of steak from grain fed ruminants must be measured in terms of oil costs involved in growing the feed, managing and marketing the meat I kg of beef requires approximately 5.7 litres of oil. Or to produce this Avian Influenza 27 people killed Over 100 million birds culled Psychological effect on consumers and impact on industry Poultry industry down by 15 - 30% Recurring outbreaks degree of impact depends on crisis management

Future food production will need to be based on lower inputs of fossil fuels Chicken, pork, fish will become expensive. Reduced industrial production more alternative feed systems The threat of disease pandemic must surely reduce poultry production Ruminant, horse, rabbit

meat from cellulose biomass will be more attractive [crop residues] Fruits ,vegetables produced with permaculture principles will predominate Crop and animal protein production will need to be integrated Its still down the track but needs to be planned now Human population explosion coincided with the increasing availability of Cheap Oil Billions of People 6 5 ?

First Oil Well 4 3 2 1 0 0 500 1000 1500 Anno Domini 2000 2500 The Challenge for Future Agriculture

World population is increasing rapidly now 6.4 billion may rise to 10 billion[???] Food production has to keep pace with population Quantity Quality,largely a balanced protein ,mineral and energy intake Protein availability critical for health and well being of people.Requirements for essential amino acids from plant and animal protein Food production has to be maintained or increased with minimal: loss of soil fertility, salinity and erosion Efficient exploitation of water resources low fossil fuel inputs pollution both in

run off of nutrients production of greenhouse gases The future price of grain will favour ruminant enterprises? Ruminants have the capacity to use biomass not used by monogastric animals Ruminant production is at a low efficiency in most countries[1.2 billion large ruminants] with tremendous scope to improve in particular reproductive efficiency The supply of supplements needed to use the biomass will arise from by-products of the feed and fuel industries [gluten meal, brewers grains] Ruminants are multi-purpose for power, food, fibre Wool will be much more competitive with synthetic

fibers which are produced from fossil fuel Straw can be viewed as an impediment to cultivation or can be used as animal feed or incorporated into soil as a carbon source Burning will eventually be unlawful Straw [stubble] can be fed direct or after treatment to improve its digestibility Some straw [lower stalks and roots] need to be retained to conserve soil carbon and fertility Ruminant Nutrition Ruminant nutrition depends on a fermentative digestive system

involving a complex mix of microorganisms The animal largely depends on the end products of fermentation but small amounts of dietary [escape] nutrients can have major effects on the efficiency it uses the fermentation products for production Fungi Protozoa Bacteria Ruminants convert forage in the rumen to organic acids with the production of microbial cells Forage Organic Acids

Or Volatile Fatty Acids Or VFA Energy Microbial cells Protein Essential amino acids Fermentation of Feed in the Rumen Forage Carbohydrates Protein Minerals: S.P.Co.Cu etc. Urea Ammonia Fermentation intermediates Methane

Energy for microbe synthesis Mineral sources Microbe building blocks Microbial cells Short chain organic acids: acetic, propionic & butyric Absorbed from rumen Microbial dry matter Digested in small intestines Bypass protein

Deficiencies of Growth Factors Alter the Flow of Fermentation Intermediates Into Products Deficient medium Well balance growth medium Digestible forage Digestible forage 1.0 1.0 Fermentation intermediates 0.17 Microbial cells

0.83 Short chain organic acids + methane + heat Fermentation intermediates 0.66 0.34 Microbial cells Short chain organic acids + methane + heat

Bypass protein explained: suckled milk the ultimate source of bypass nutrients Feed Forage Protein Rumen Ammonia +short chain fatty acids [energy] Intestines Protein digested in the intestines The constraints to using straw as a major feed component for ruminants Highly fibrous tough composition [difficult to Highly fibrous tough composition [difficult to breakdown by chewing- reduces intake] Deficiency of minerals and crude protein to supply

rumen nutrients: depending on soil and harvest conditions. No escape or bypass protein Low and variable digestibility depending on soil rainfall and harvest conditions Low bulk density that limits feed intake Priorities in Ruminant Nutrition 1 Getting the Balance of Nutrients Right Priority 1.Balance the nutrition of the rumen microbes to ensure maximum

growth Macro and micro minerals Ammonia Sulphur/Phosphorus Priority 2. Feed additional escape protein in catalytic amounts Mechanisms to balance diets include The use of mineral mixes and /or urea as: Added to feed Loose mixes and block licks of minerals and urea In water medication

Fortified molasses with urea and minerals Organic feeds high in the deficient nutrients Lupins,mill run,seed meals such as peas Protein meals capable of escaping fermentation in the rumen [brewers grains, gluten feed, copra, cottonseed, linseed, soybean, wheat bran and rice pollard] Priorities in ruminant nutrition 2 Getting Intake High Feeding always more then they can consume Chopping to lengths that can be consumed quickly [sheep approx 2cm,cattle 5-10cm lengths] Lifting the moisture content Lifting digestibility by treatment with acid

or alkalis or cellulase or white rot fungi Compacting feed to increase density Utilization of cereal crop residues has a number of strategies that can increase efficiency of animal production Stubble grazing under set stocking with cattle and or sheep. In stubble grazing ruminants heavily select for Spilt grain Green and nutritious weeds Crop leaf material The nutritional value of the stubble quickly decreases because of this selection and with or without supplements the highest proportion of the crop residue is unusable The nutritional value and the numbers of animals that can be fed on straw can be increased greatly by

Harvesting a proportion of the crop residue[ say half] and hand feeding with supplements with or without treatment of straw Grazing the spilt grain and weeds with supplementation The disappearance of components of a stubble under grazing by sheep for 4 months at Merredin WA. [crop 1 tonne/ha] 450 400 350 Component of 300 straw 250 biomass 200 [kg/ ha] 150 100 50 0 Spilt grain

leaf Biomass J anuary stem flower stem Biomass April Fels H E cited by Dixon and Doyle 1996 Husks Overcoming the constraints to utilization of straw by ruminants Highly fibrous tough composition [difficult to

breakdown by chewingreduces intake] Deficiency of minerals and crude protein to supply rumen nutrients: depending on soil and harvest conditions. No escape or bypass protein Low and variable digestibility depending on soil and harvest conditions Low bulk density that limits feed intake Chop or macerate

Supplementation with rumen nutrients Supplementation with bypass protein depending on production expectations Treatment with acids or alkalis to improve digestibility Compress or pellet feed Sheep Require Forages to Be Chopped for High Intake;Silage Chop Length Effects on Intake and Live

Weight Gain of Lambs Long chop Short chop *Silage intake [g dm/day] L Wt change[g/day] 570 -6 1130 150 **Silage intake [g dm/day] L Wt change[g/day] 450 37 720 100

*Fitzgerald[1984] ** Apolant &Chestnut [1985] Utilization of barley straw[ 5% CP] by cows in the last trimester of pregnancy Form Straw---86% Barley--- 3% Soybean meal---10% Trace mineralvitamin mix---0.77% Weisenburger and Mathieson 1977 11 400 10.5 350 300 10

250 200 9.5 150 100 9 50 0 8.5 Pelleted Ground Chopped Forage intake,kg/day

450 Live weight gain,g/day of presentation of straw effects intake and live weight gain. Ingredients The Effects of Minerals and Urea Supplementation on Straw Intake by Cattle[200kg LWt] 40 60 50 30 40 25 20

30 15 20 10 10 5 0 0 Nil supple Perdok&Leng [1985] plus minerals 35g/d plus 35gurea+35g mineral mix Digestibility, %

Straw intake,kg/week 35 Response to rumen nutrients [in block licks] by cattle[200kg] fed forages of low and high digestibility [Perdok &Leng 1990] Growth rate [g/day] 300 200 No rumen nutrients 100 0 -100 -200 0

Supplemented with rumen nutrients [block licks] -300 -400 Digestibility of a poorly digested forage may be increased by acid or alkali treatment Response to cottonseed meal intake by cattle[200kg] fed long rice straw or urea treated rice straw [Perdok &Leng 1990] Supplemented with rumen nutrients 600 No rumen 400nutrients Growth rate [g/day]

800 200 0 -200 -400 -600 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 Cottonseed meal supplement [kg/day] Rice straw urea treated straw Suppl. with rumen nutrients and bypass protein Live Wt gain [g/day]

increases live weight gain of crossbred lambs. 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 Supple: gain ratio 1:1 0 0 50 100 150 Intake of cottonseed meal [g/day]

Abidin and Kempton 1989 200 250 CSM versus Grain Supplementation and Growth of Cattle Fed Hay [Poppi and McLennon 1990] 1.4 1.2 CSM 1 Live weight 0.8 gain 0.6 [kg/day] 0.4 Barley Sorghum

0.2 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 Supplement [%L Wt] 2 Increase in live weight gain [Kg/day] Increase in live weight gain when steers on low quality forage are supplemented with protein bypass 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 y = 0.161x + 0.240 R2 = 0.760 y = 0.548x R2 = 0.632 0 1 2 3 4 Intake of protein meal [gCP/kgWt/day] Poppi & McLennon [ 1995]

5 66 Litter mates: weaned at same time and fed oaten caff with soluble or bypass protein Same protein % same energy content same mineral concentration Optimising steer growth on dry pasture Once the rumen nutrients are in place the following rules of thumb may be used At low levels of CSM meal [below 0.6kg cattle or 100g sheep] growth response is about 1.1g live-weight gain/g of meal given] Above these levels of protein meal supplementation the response is only

0.25g/g protein meal Live weight gain [g/day] From the established relationships the live weight gain can be predicted from the graphs 1100 y = 1.06x + 400 900 700 500 300 y = 1.06x - 100 100 -100 0 100 200 300

400 CSM intake [g/day] 500 600 The Response of Young Cattle Given Treated Straw and fed increasing levels of Bypass Protein [Cottonseed 1.2 Cake] LWt gain [kg/day] 1 0.8 Expt 1 Expt 2

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 Intake of c otton c ake[kg/day] Dolberg & Finlayson[1995] 5 The No.of Young Cattle That Can Be Fattened on 6 Tonne of Straw with Strategic Supplements CC

Lwt gain [Kg/day] [kg/d] 0 0.25 0.5 1.5 2.0 2.5 .063 .370 .529 .781 .829 .892 Straw /100kg LWt gain[T] No. fed on 6 tonne straw

6.0 1.1 0.92 0.56 0.48 0.46 1 5+ 6+ 10+ 12+ 13+ Conversion Efficiency of Cottonseed Cake[CC] to Live Weight Gain CC [Kg/day] Lwt gain [kg/d] CC/100kg

LWt gain[T] CC conversion [kg/kg] 0 .063 0[0]* - 0.25 .370 0.1[0.5] 1.2:1 0.5

.529 0.1[0.6] 0.93:1 1.5 .781 0.14[1.4] 0.48:1 2.0 .829 0.22[2.6] 0.26:1 2.5

.892 0.24[3.1] 0.31:1 *Tonnes of CC to fatten group of animals There are many ways to approach the utilisation of straw and there is a major need for farmer invention. Treatment possibilities 4% urea on wet straw[40% dry mater, ground sheet and covered to retain ammonia 1-2% urea plus 2-3% hydrated lime on wet straw 2-4% caustic soda on damp straw[80-90%dry matter] 2-6 weeks for digestibility to increase by 5 units 2% ammonia gas on damp straw Enzyme Fungi treatments Treatment with 2-4% acid [potential from acid soil]

All require 2-6 weeks for digestibility increases of 510% 3% hydrated lime on dry straw kept for 1 year prior to feeding[?????] Round bale choppers are avilable 1. Straw Combine - harvesting wheat straw, conditioning and loading 2. 50 HP Tractor, trailed type, 7 feet cutter bar Cost Rs 1akh approximately Supplier : BHARAT INDUSTRIAL CORP, AKALSAR ROAD, MOGA 142001 PUNJAB, INDIA. PHONES : 0091 1636 224075, 0091 1636 22 4076 , MOBILE 9814069075 CONTACT PERSON Sh Baldev Singh STRAW DENSITY is only 25 Kg/Cubic meter (only 750 kg in 4x2.5x 3)

A possible strategy to use straw Harvest a proportion of the straw Round bales Chopped straw [Bhusa combine] Treat with alkali in round bales or after chopping or from combine Compact the feed material with or without supplements Feed with supplements of rumen nutrients and bypass protein. The rewards can be high Cattle finished on a diet of treated 70% oat straw chaff with Twin bearing ewes were successfully taken through last part of pregnancy on a diet of 70% treated oat husk

Lambs finished on treated oat straw [70% total diet] plus supplements. Overall growth rate 350g/head/day Industries heavily dependent on cheap oil are at risk: e.g. Airline Industry [and Agriculture] is [will] Having Great Difficulties Maintaining Profitability As Fuel Price Increase Airline industry net profit/loss with different oil prices in 2005 95 Fuel use index 2005 100 90 85 80

75 5 70 1990 0 -10 1995 2000 2003 700 -15 -20 1992

Fuel prices [$/tonne] -5 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005 2005 [$40] [$47] [$60] Kevin Done, Financial Times July 29 2005 see also www.ft.com/oil Fuel Prices, $ per tonne Airline I ndustry Net Profit or Loss, $bn 10 Fuel Use: an index of fuel use per revenue tonne km [1990=100 600 500 400 300

200 100 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 The future resides in capturing solar energy [including wind and wave or current energy capture] and harnessing it to fuel our needs for energy Pregnant Trucks Taking Wheat Bhoosa over 500km to drought areas of Rajhasthan Emphasises the enormous dependency on straw as a

feed for cattle and buffalo in India Using straw to feed ruminants is detailed in DROUGHT AND DRY SEASON FEEDING STRATEGIES FOR CATTLE,SHEEP AND GOATS. By R A Leng www.penambulbooks.com Thank you for your attention Countries import and export similar quantities of foods Britain imports 240,000 tonnes of pork and 125,000 tonnes of lamb Britain

exports 195,000 tonnes of pork 102,000 tonnes of lamb Australia exports Arnot biscuits to New Zealand and imports NZ biscuits Globalization is unsustainable ,illogical and bizarre and is only possible in a world that has cheap oil

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