Electron Configurations and Periodicity Chapter 7 Electron Spin
Electron Configurations and Periodicity Chapter 7 Electron Spin In Chapter 6, we saw that electron pairs residing in the same orbital are required to have opposing spins. This causes electrons to behave like tiny bar magnets. A beam of hydrogen atoms is split in two by a magnetic field due to these magnetic properties of the electrons.
Electron Configuration An electron configuration of an atom is a particular distribution of electrons among available sub shells. The notation for a configuration lists the subshell symbols sequentially with a superscript indicating the number of electrons occupying that sub shell. For example, lithium (atomic number 3) has two electrons in the 1s sub shell and one electron in the 2s sub shell 1s2 2s1. Electron Configuration
An orbital diagram is used to show how the orbitals of a sub shell are occupied by electrons. Each orbital is represented by a circle. Each group of orbitals is labeled by its sub shell notation. 1s 2s 2p Electrons are represented by arrows: up
for ms = +1/2 and down for ms = -1/2 The Pauli Exclusion Principle The Pauli exclusion principle, which summarizes experimental observations, states that no two electrons can have the four quantum numbers. same In other words, an orbital can hold at most two electrons, and then only if the electrons have opposite spins. The Pauli Exclusion Principle The maximum number of electrons and
their orbital diagrams are: Sub shell Number of Orbitals Maximum Number of Electrons s (l = 0) 1
2 p (l = 1) 3 6 d (l =2) 5 10
f (l =3) 7 14 Aufbau Principle Every atom has an infinite number of possible electron configurations. The configuration associated with the lowest energy level of the atom is called the ground state. Other configurations correspond to excited states.
Aufbau Principle The Aufbau principle is a scheme used to reproduce the ground state electron configurations of atoms by following the building up order. Listed below is the order in which all the possible sub-shells fill with electrons. 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f You need not memorize this order. As you will see, it can be easily obtained. Order for Filling Atomic Subshells
1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5p < 6s Orbital Energy Levels in Multielectron Systems 3d Energy 4s 3p 3s 2p 2s 1s
Aufbau Principle The building up order corresponds for the most part to increasing energy of the subshells. By filling orbitals of the lowest energy first, you usually get the lowest total energy (ground state) of the atom. Now you can see how to reproduce the electron configurations of using the Aufbau principle. Remember, the number of electrons in the neutral atom equals the atomic number, Z.
Aufbau Principle Here are a few examples. Using the abbreviation [He] for 1s2, the configurations are Z=4 Z=3 Beryllium Lithium 1s22s2 1s22s1 or
or [He]2s2 [He]2s1 Aufbau Principle With boron (Z=5), the electrons begin filling the 2p subshell. Z=5 Boron 1s22s22p1
or [He]2s22p1 Z=6 Carbon 1s22s22p2 or [He]2s22p2 Z=7
Nitrogen 1s22s22p3 or [He]2s22p3 Z=8 Oxygen 1s22s22p4
or [He]2s22p4 Z=9 Fluorine 1s22s22p5 or [He]2s22p5 Z=10
Neon 1s22s22p6 or [He]2s62p6 Aufbau Principle With sodium (Z = 11), the 3s sub shell begins to fill. Z=11 Z=12
Sodium Magnesium 1s22s22p63s1 1s22s22p23s2 or [Ne]3s1 or [Ne]3s2 Then the 3p sub shell begins to fill. Z=13 Aluminum
Z=1 Argon 8 1s22s22p63s23p1 or [Ne]3s23p1 1s22s22p63s o [Ne]3s23p6 2 3p6 r Configurations and the Periodic Table Note that elements within a given family
have similar configurations. For instance, look at the noble gases. Helium Neon Argon Krypton 1s2 1s22s22p6 1s22s22p63s23p6 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p6 Configurations and the Periodic Table Note that elements within a given family
have similar configurations. The Group IIA elements are sometimes called the alkaline earth metals. Beryllium Magnesium Calcium 1s22s2 1s22s22p63s2 1s22s22p63s23p64s2 Configurations and the Periodic Table Electrons that reside in the outermost
shell of an atom - or in other words, those electrons outside the noble gas core- are called valence electrons. These electrons are primarily involved in chemical reactions. Elements within a given group have the same valence shell configuration. This accounts for the similarity of the chemical properties among groups of elements. Configurations and the Periodic Table
The following slide illustrates how the periodic table provides a sound way to remember the Aufbau sequence. In many cases you need only the configuration of the outer electrons. You can determine this from their position on the periodic table. The total number of valence electrons for an atom equals its group number. Configurations and the Periodic Table Orbital Diagrams
Consider carbon (Z = 6) with the ground state configuration 1s22s22p2. Three possible arrangements are given in the following orbital diagrams. Diagram 1: 1s 2s Diagram 2: Diagram 3: Each state has a different energy and different magnetic characteristics.
2p Orbital Diagrams Hunds rule states that the lowest energy arrangement (the ground state) of electrons in a sub-shell is obtained by putting electrons into separate orbitals of the sub shell with the same spin before pairing electrons. Looking at carbon again, we see that the ground state configuration corresponds to diagram 1 when following Hunds rule. 1s
2s 2p Orbital Diagrams To apply Hunds rule to oxygen, whose ground state configuration is 1s22s22p4, we place the first seven electrons as follows. 1s 2s
2p The last electron is paired with one of the 2p electrons to give a doubly occupied orbital. 1s 2s 2p Magnetic Properties Although an electron behaves like a tiny magnet, two electrons that are opposite in
spin cancel each other. Only atoms with unpaired electrons exhibit magnetic susceptibility. A paramagnetic substance is one that is weakly attracted by a magnetic field, usually the result of unpaired electrons. A diamagnetic substance is not attracted by a magnetic field generally because it has only paired electrons. Periodic Properties The periodic law states that when the elements are arranged by atomic
number, their physical and chemical properties vary periodically. We will look at three periodic properties: Atomic radius Ionization energy Electron affinity Periodic Properties Atomic radius Within each period (horizontal row), the atomic radius tends to decrease with atomic number (nuclear charge).
increasing Within each group (vertical column), the atomic radius tends to increase with the period number. Periodic Properties Two factors determine the size of an atom. One factor is the principal quantum number, n. The larger is n, the larger the size of the The orbital. other factor is the effective nuclear charge, which is the positive charge an electron experiences from the nucleus
minus any shielding effects from intervening electrons. Figure Representation of atomic radii (covalent radii) of the maingroup elements. Periodic Properties Ionization energy The first ionization energy of an atom is the minimal energy needed to remove the highest energy (outermost) electron from
For the neutral atom. a lithium atom, the first ionization energy is illustrated by: 2 1 2 Li(1s 2s ) Li (1s ) e
Ionization energy = 520 kJ/mol Periodic Properties Ionization energy There is a general trend that ionization energies increase with atomic number within a given period. This follows the trend in size, as it is more difficult to remove an electron that is closer to the nucleus.
For the same reason, we find that ionization energies, again following the trend in size, decrease as we descend a column of elements. number. Periodic Properties Ionization energy The electrons of an atom can be removed successively. The energies required at each step are known as
the first ionization energy, the second ionization energy, and so forth. Periodic Properties Electron Affinity The electron affinity is the energy change for the process of adding an electron to a neutral atom in the gaseous state atom, to form negative For a chlorine theafirst
electronion. affinity is illustrated by: 2 5 2 6 Cl([Ne]3s 3p ) e Cl ([Ne]3s 3p )
Electron Affinity = -349 kJ/mol Periodic Properties Electron Affinity The more negative the electron affinity, the more stable the negative ion that is formed. Broadly speaking, the general trend goes from lower left to upper right as electron affinities become more negative. The Main-Group Elements The physical and chemical properties of the main-group elements clearly display
periodic behavior. Variations of metallic-nonmetallic character. Basic-acidic behavior of the oxides. Group IA, Alkali Metals Largest atomic radii React violently with water to form H2 Readily ionized to 1+ Increasing reactivity Metallic character, oxidized in air R2O in most cases
Group IIA, Alkali Earth Metals Readily ionized to 2+ React with water to form H2 Increasing reactivity Closed s shell configuration Metallic Transition Metals May have several oxidation states Metallic Reactive with acids
Group III A Metals (except for boron) Several oxidation states (commonly 3+) 4Al(s) + 3O2(g) 2Al(s) + 6H+(aq) 2Al2O3(s) 2Al3+(aq) + 3H2(g) Group IV A Form the most covalent compounds Oxidation numbers vary between 4+ and 4- Group V A Form anions generally(1-, 2-, 3-), though
positive oxidation states are possible Form metals, metalloids, and nonmetals Group VI A Form 2- anions generally, though positive oxidation states are possible React vigorously with alkali and alkali earth metals Nonmetals Halogens Form monoanions High electronegativity (electron affinity)
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