TEK 12A-Nature Relationships (5.RS) Relationships in Nature Mutualism-Both

TEK 12A-Nature Relationships (5.RS) Relationships in Nature Mutualism-Both

TEK 12A-Nature Relationships (5.RS) Relationships in Nature Mutualism-Both species benefit Commensalism-one helped , one unaffected Parasitism- one helped, one harmed Predation- one hunts other Competition- fight for resource TEK 12C- Energy Flow(5.RS) TEK 4B- Cell Transport (1.RS) Homeostasis- balance condition Cell membrane functions Protective barrier Regulate transport of molecules Allow cell recognition Diffusion-molecules move using no energy Osmosis-water moves in or out of a cell due to concentration gradient Hypertonic-water leaves cell Hypotonic-water enters cell Isotonic-water is balanced Types of transport Passive-Requires no energy Facilitated- no energy uses proteins Active Transport- uses energy Moves against gradient Exocytosis-Active trans out Endocytosis-Active trans in More producers than consumers Affecting one species will causes changes to the whole food web ProducerAutotroph Primary Consumer-Eats producer Secondary consumer-Eats Primary You only get 10% of the energy from the food you eat the rest is lost as heat TEK 9A- Biomolecules (1.RS) Biomolecul Elem ents Function Example Monomer Protein C,H,O ,N Structural Meat, Fish Amino Acids Carbohy drate C,H,O Short Term Energy Fruit, Vegetabl e Monosaccharide Lipids C,H,O Long term Energy Fats, Oils Glycerol, Fatty Acids Nucleic Acids C,H,O ,N,P Store Genetics DNA, RNA Nucleotides TEK 4A Prokaryote vs Eukaryote Cells (1.SS) Prokaryote-no nucleus, DNA in cytoplasm Eukaryote- contains a nucleus, DNA found here Bacteria are prokaryotic cells Plants, animals, fungi, and protists are eukaryotic cells Eukaryotes are more complex and have membrane bound organelles Prokaryote TEK 10C- Organization (4.SS) Atom-Lithium atom Molecule- Glucose Organelle- mitochondria TEK 4C- Viruses (1.RS) Viruses are non-living since they have no nucleus and have to reproduce using living cells Viruses use the lytic and lysogenic cycles to reproduce Viral structure Capsid-around outside Genetic material-DNA or RNA Examples of viruses: Cold HIV Flu TEK 11C-Role of Microorganisms (5.SS) Benefits of Bacteria Microorganisms Such as bacteria and Decompose organic protists can both help material and harm individuals Change nitrogen in and the environment. nitrogen cycle Example Make E.Coli can help with drugs(penicillin),foods, digestion in the body and vitamins and cause disease Help with digestion of when outside the food body TEK 11D-Succession(5.RS) Primary succession- starts from nothing, volcano creating an island Starts with lichen and other pioneer species before moss and plants Simple plants die adding nutrients to soil Animals start to inhabit area as well TEK 12E-Cycles in Nature (5.SS) Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen is removed from air by nitrogen fixation by bacteria or lightning Plants take in nitrogen from the soil Animals intake nitrogen from plants and store it in proteins Denitrifying bacteria return the nitrogen to the air Carbon Cycle Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is taken in by plants for use during photo synthesis Animals eat the carbon stored in glucose in the plant Carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere during cellular respiration Carbon dioxide is also released from burning fossil fuels Dead organic waste also returns carbon to the environment Secondary succession- something was there before: forest fire, natural disaster Occurs faster since nutrients are in soil from before the disaaster Eukaryote STAAR Biology Semester 1- Created by Nick Dellas LBJECHS Harmful Roles of Bacteria Spoil food Cell animal cell Produce harmful toxins Cause disease Tissue- muscle tissue Consume too much oxygen (algae blooms) Disruptions of the cycles Disruptions like production of greenhouse gases can disrupt the normal flow of matter through the cycles Organ-heart Organ System-Skeletal Population- mice Community- lion and deer Ecosystem-rainforest TEK 5B- Specialized Cells (1.SS) Plant Part Examples of Specialized cells Leaf Cells containing chloroplasts for photosynthesis Guard Cells control the size of stomates allowing gas transport Stem Xylem cells move water and minerals up Phloem cells move glucose down Root

Epidermis cells on root hairs allow for absorption of water and minerals Animal Cell Examples of Specialized cells Muscle Cell Cause muscle contraction Skeletal-attach to bones, Cardiac-pump heart, Smooth-involuntary(digestion) Blood Cell Red blood cells-carry oxygen and nutrients White blood cells- fight infections Platlets cause blood clots Epitheliu m Cell Covers external surface of body, lines intestines and esophagus, has many different functions TEK 11A- Homeostasis and Internal Feedback (4.SS) Homeostasis is the process by which cells and organisms maintain a constant balance Internal feedback is a self-regulating process that can help maintain homeostasis Mechanism Response to stimulus Example Negative feedback Decreases effect A human that gets too hot will cool himself by dilating blood vessels and sweating Positive Feedback Increases effect Ethylene is produced when apples ripen which causes the release of more ethylene causes more ripe apples TEK 9B- Cell Energy (4.SS) Photosynthesis Making of glucose(sugar) 6CO2+6H2OC6H12O6+6O2 Reactants Products Happens in chloroplasts Autotrophs only Cell Respiration Breaking down Glucose making ATP C6H12O6+6O26CO2+6H2O Reactants Products Occurs in the mitochondria All living organisms TEK 9C- Enzymes (4.SS) Proteins that speed up(catalyze) chemical reactions Specific to a certain substrate Are reusable End in the letters ase Examples: sucrase, lactase,maltase Factors that affect enzymes Environmental conditions Extreme temperature pH (acid or base) Cofactors and Coenzymes Minerals and vitamins Enzyme inhibitors Compete with enzyme TEK 12F-Evironmental Change Impacting Ecosystems (5.RS) Change in the environment, caused by nature or humans, can affect the stability of and ecosystem in a positive or negative way. Changes can help sustain or destroy populations of species. Example A A volcanic eruption kills a communitys populations of organisms. The areas ecosystem is destroyed. Example B Leaking sewage systems release sewage into a river, causing excessive weed and algae growth and reducing fish population. Humans repair leaks and reintroduce fish species. As a result, the ecosystem recovers. Reporting Cat 1 Cells Reporting Cat 2 Genetics Reporting Cat 3 Evolution and Taxonomy Reporting Cat 4 Biological Systems Reporting Cat 5 Environmental Systems 11 Questions 11 Questions 10 Questions 11 Questions 11 Questions 4 Readiness 3 Readiness 3 Readiness 2 Readiness 4 Readiness 5 Supporting 8 Supporting 7 Supporting 4 Supporting 5 Supporting TEK 10A- Animal Systems Interactions (4.RS) An animals systems interact to perform many functions Regulation The endocrine system makes certain hormones. Blood carries the hormones to areas that help balance nutrients the body like glucose. Nutrient Absorption Food is broken down in the stomach by muscles, water, acid and enzymes. Nutrients are then absorbed into the blood. Reproduction Certain hormones produced in the endocrine system control ovulation in a females reproductive system. Defense Mucus in the lungs trap a virus in the respiratory system, T-cells in the immune system destroy viruses, nerves in the skin protect from dangerous situations TEK 10B- Plant Systems Interactions (4.RS) A plants systems interact to perform many functions Function Example of interaction Transport The root system uptakes water Xylem vessels transport water to the leaves in the shoot system Phloem vessels transport sugars and nutrients throughout the plant Reproduction The reproductive organs of the flower are the pistil(female) and the stamen(male) A seed is a mature, pollinated ovule(fertilized egg) Hormones in a plants root system help trigger the growth of a seed in the shoot system Response When one side of a plant does not receive enough light, a hormone that causes growth is produced in the shoot systems leaves. It is transported to the darker side. As the dark side grows, the plant bends toward the light. TEK 12D- Survival of Species (5.SS) The long term survival of organisms depends on the resources supplied by their environment Needed Resources-food, water, air, space Populations size is limited by availability of resources Factors that can affect population size Competition Predation Parasitism and disease Drought and other climate extremes Human disturbances TEK 11B- Population Responses (5.SS) Organisms must respond to external factors like changes in the environment or other organisms. If it cannot change they will become extinct Example: A fire destroys all of the grass in a food chain 1. Many mice switch to berries and seeds as alternative food sources population survives 2. The rabbits are unable to find new food sources. They leave to look for grass in a new community. If they are unsuccessful then the population will die out TEK 9D- Simple Organic Molecules(1.SS) Organic Molecules- molecules that contain certain bonds between carbon atoms All living things are made from organic molecules Simple Molecule to life steps Formation of simple molecules Formation of complex molecules Self-Replicating molecules Formation of selfreplicating molecules

Metabolic Processes TEK 5A- Cell Cycle and Mitosis (1.RS) G1 Phase S Phase G2 Phase M Phase Cytokinesis First Growth Stage Copying of DNA Time bewteen DNA synthesis and mitosis Cell growth stopped Occurs after chromosomes separate Cell Increases size Chromosomes Duplicated Cell Continues Growing Cells energy used to make 2 daughter cells Forms two, identical daughter cells Needed proteins produced Called Mitosis Cell Prepares to copy DNA DNA Replication DNA Must be copied before cell division occurs Copied during S Phase of Cell Cycle Process is semi -conservative (half new, half old) Helicase enzyme unwinds and separates the DNA DNA polymerase adds free nucleotides the single DNA strands Adenine matches with Thymine, Cytosine matches with Guanine Apple-Tree, Chewing-Gum Two identical strands of DNA are created for use in mitosis Example: ATTCGATCGAT TAAGCTAGCTA TEK 5C- Cell Differentiation (1.SS) All cells in the body have all of the DNA except gamete cells Each cell only transcribed and translates the genes it needs Gene expression- genes that are transcribed and translated by a cell Factors affecting Expression Internal Factors Proteins or hormones within the organism External Factors Temperature changes, supply of oxygen, and available nutrients Pollution and climate factors TEK 5D- Disruptions of Cell Cycle and Cancer(1.SS) Disruption or loss of control of the cell cycle can lead to cancer Cancer is the uncontrolled growth and reproduction of cells Uncontrolled growth of cells is a tumor Benign tumors are harmless, malignant or cancerous tumors can be deadly Can occur in almost any organ Treated by chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, or drugs STAAR Biology Semester 2 Review Created By Nick Dellas LBJ Early College High School TEK 6C- Transcription and Translation(2.SS) Mitosis Prophase DNA coils Nuclear membrane disappears Metaphase Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell Anaphase Chromosomes are seperated toward ends of cell Telophase Separation of chromosomes complete Nuclei reform in new cells TEK 6A- DNA Components (2.RS) DNA-Deoxyribonucleic Acid Double Helix- twisted ladder Made of nucleotides Nucleotide Phosphate group Deoxyribose sugar Nitrogen base Adenine(A) Thymine(T) Cytosine(C) Guanine(G) Packaged in chromosomes Blueprint for your traits Found in nucleus of the cell Transcription Process of making mRNA from DNA Occurs in the nucleus RNA polymerase enzyme helps to create the mRNA Adenine- Uracil, Cytosine-Guanine Example: DNA- ATC GAT AGC mRNA- UAG CUA UCG Types of RNA mRNA- messenger blueprint, made in nucleus, sets of three nitrogen bases called codons tRNA- transfer RNA, carries amino acids to the ribosomes, sets of 3 nitrogen bases called anticodons rRNA- ribosomal, makes up ribosomes Kingdom (King) Largest Animalia Multicellular mobile heterotrophic eukartoyes Phylum (Phillip) Chordata Nerve chord pharyngeal slits Class (came) Mammalia Hair, mammary glands, four-chambered heart Order (over) Primates Nails, clavicle, opposable digits DNA Model TEK 6E- Genetic Mutations(2.RS) Occurs during DNA replication Gene mutation changes a single gene Only mutations in gametes DNA can be inherited Type Mutation What happens Example Point Mutation Substitution One base pair is replaced CUU changes to CUA Insertion Base pair is added TACGCATACAGCA Deletion Base pair is removed TACGCATAGCA Frameshift Mutation TEK 8A-Classification (3.SS) Levels of Classification of Humans Translation Process of building a protein by matching codons in mRNA to anticodons of tRNA(use the codon chart), occurs in the cells ribosome Example: DNA- TAC GAT AGC mRNA- AUG CUA UCG tRNA- UAC GAU AGC AAMET LEU SER Amino Acid chain is called a protein or polypeptide Protein will continue to be created until the mRNA reaches a stop codon There are 20 amino acids Family (for) Homidae Bipedal, advanced tool use Genus (good) Homo Human like Species (soup) (Smallest) Homo sapiens Binomial nomenclatureScientific naming Genus and species Italics Capitalize the genus TEK 8B- Classification(3.RS) Cladograms- a diagram that shows relationships among groups of

organisms In a cladogram more closely related groups appear closer together while more distantly related groups a farther away Dichotomous Key- help determine species Follow the clues in a dichotomous key to identify an organism by their characteristics Always start at step one TEK 7A- Evidence of Evolution (3.RS) Fossil Record A variety of organisms have existed over time starting very simple and evolving to more complex Biogeography Species that live in the same area are more closely related, but species related species can be found living far apart Anatomical Homologies Similar structure , different function(human arm, whale flipper) Molecular Homologies Similar DNA sequences may show relatedness Developmental Homologies Embryonic similarities TEK 7E-Natural Selection and Diversity (3.RS) Evolution is the change of a population over time Natural Selection is a theory that explains how evolution occurs Individuals in a population that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive Inherited variations are differences in traits of individuals of the same species Adaptation is a trait that increases an organisms chance of survival in its environment The more favorable trait will survive and be passed down TEK 6B-Genetic Code (2.SS) All living organisms have genetic material (DNA and RNA)made of nucleotides Nucleotide- Phosphate group, Deoxyribose sugar, Nitrogen base [Adenine(A), Thymine(T), Cytosine(C), Guanine(G)] The code is universal among all living organisms TEK 12B Adaptations- (5.SS) Genetic Variety-different phenotypes Adaptations due to environment Example: organisms in grasslands have flat teeth for grinding their food TEK 8C- Kingdoms (3.SS) Kingdom Cell Type # of Cells Nutrition Reproduction Examples Archae Prokaryote Unicellular Auto/Hetero Asexual Halophiles, Methanogens Eubacteria Prokaryote Unicellular Auto/Hetero Asexual E.Coli, Streptococcus Protista Eukaryote Uni/Multicellular Auto/Hetero Asexual/Sexual Amoeba, paramecium, giant kelp Fungi Eukaryote Uni/Multicellular Hetero Asexual/Sexual Mushrooms, yeast, mold Animalia Eukaryote Multicellular Hetero Sexual Sponges, Humans, worms, insects Plants Eukaryote Multicellular Auto Asexual/Sexual Mosses, Flowers, ferns, trees TEK 6F- Genetics(2.RS) Phenotype-What the organism looks like (purple, white) Genotype-gene combination(BB, Bb, bb) Incomplete Dominance RR=Red, Rr=Pink, rr=White Third Genotype is a blend Co-dominance BB=Black, BW= Spotted, WW=White Third genotype shows both TEK 6G- Meiosis(2.SS) Meiosis- creation of gametes using cell division Involves Meiosis I and Meiosis II Creates 4 haploid cells from one diploid cell Gametes=sex cells TEK 7B- Fossil Record (3.SS) Fossil record is a timeline that shows how life evolved Gradualism- species changes very slowly over period of time Punctuated Equilibrium-little or no change over long period followed by sudden change Living fossil-species that has changed little since first appearing of Earth TEK 6H-DNA Testing (2.SS) DNA Fingerprinting- compares sections from 2 or more samples DNA Extraction- opening cells to isolate DNA (spooling) DNA Cutting- large molecules are cut using restriction enzymes Electrophoresis- DNA is separated based on size and charge Karyotyping- visual display of chromosomes for comparison Allows for observation of missing or extra chromosomes like Downs Syndrome and Trisonomy Pictures taken during metaphase Dihybrid Cross Cross of 2 traits Gametes will be combinations of 2 alleles TEK 6D-Gene Expression Regulation (2.SS) All cells except gamete cells in the human body have a complete copy of DNA Prokaryotes Regulation Eukaryote Regulation Promoter begins Controlled by transcription transcription factors Operator controls rate of Each type of factor affects gene transcription expression in different ways Repressor prevents the Specific factors must be present transcription from occuring for transcription to occur Multiple Alleles Genes have more alleles Blood type-A,B,AB,O Polygenic Traits Trait determined by more than one Gene (hair and skin color) TEK 7F- Evolutionary Mechanisms(3.SS) Genetic Drift-Change in gene pool caused by chance(flood kills 95% of worm pop.) Gene Flow-Change in in gene pool caused by organisms moving around Mutation- Change in gene pool caused by genetic mutations in gamete cells Recombination- Variation due to crossing over of gene during meiosis TEK 7G- Cell Complexity (3.SS) 3.5 billion year ago- ancient prokaryotic ancestors 2.2 billion years ago- first photosynthetic bacteria 2.1 billion years ago- first eukaryote fossils Endosymbiosis- one organism lives inside another and both benefit TEK 7D- Inherited Variation (3.SS) Inherited Variation Inherited traits that are favored (Ex. Black mice have better camouflage) Producing More offspring than needed Producing more offspring give better chance of species survival Limited Supply of Resources When competition arises those with best traits survive TEK 7C- Natural Selection and Population Change(3.SS) Variations cause advantages Stabilizing Selection Extreme phenotypes are a disadvantage Directional Selection A particular phenotype has an advantage Disruptive Selection When extreme phenotypes are an advantage

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