Curved Detectors (3D) Status Olaf Iwert, ESO 1

Curved Detectors (3D)  Status Olaf Iwert, ESO 1

Curved Detectors (3D) Status Olaf Iwert, ESO 1 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 Skeptic about curved detectors ? A participant from SPIE 2013, Edinburgh: .Are these guys crazy ?? (IR)Detectors are complex enough already ! We should stop this development..

But what about Progress ? 2 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 BACK TO THE FUTURE 3 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017

It takes a looong time from the first idea to the actual product.. (ALWAYS), but some examples how long: A.) Solid State Imagers: What is the first time you came into touch ? What were your thoughts at that time on their future for the impact on our daily life ? What do you think the astronomers / engineers replied, whom I talked to ? 4 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017

1975: FIRST Digital Camera (Kodak) Kodaks inventor of the first digital camera has revealed how bewildered company executives couldnt understand why anyone would ever want to look at images on a TV screen when he first proposed the idea of a filmless camera to them in 1975. Patent US4131919A 5 Olaf Iwert

European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 Analog <> Digital Camera (large format) : Digital wonderbricks now everywhere since ~ 2003, but not in 60 mm x 60 mm, which was the medium format standard Largest commercially offered medium format detectors now have ~ 60 mm x 40 mm, but no backside illumination Hubble Trigger for all scientific CCD work ! 6 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO)

Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 B: CCD versus CMOS: Talk by M. Loose SDW 2005, Taormina: CCDs are dead / dinosaurs >> CMOS is the future 2017: Commercial poducts (OK) Scientific products (no way yet) e.g. ESPRESSO CCD detectors 90 x 90 mm State-ofthe-Art), plus required binning 7 Olaf Iwert

European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 C: 1961 - COMPUTER MOUSE / GUI SRI Stanford Research Institute - now Stanford Research International, owned by Sarnoff ~ 1985 again by Apple; early 90s widespread Google also : Mother of all presenttations, Engelbart 8 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017

FLASHBACK TO SDW 2013: Curved detectors: Where did we stop ? 9 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 In a nutshell: Curved Detector KEYPOINTS Optical advantages of system performance Curved detectors plus simplified optics >> not really elaborated this time in detail >> Zwicky ? Advantages as f (Field, speed, vignetting, resolution) Fixed / modulated curvature

Cryogenic / non-cryogenic curvature Curving thin or thick detectors ? Theory of tensile stress versus practical experiment High curvature / low curvature with small / large detectors Curvature shape with high / low accuracy Commercial world: Mirrorless cameras / cellphones 10 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 Milestone developments 2013 (1) JPL modulated curvature on the fly, relying on thinning

Unsupported, frame thinned, curvature modulated on the fly during imaging: Shouleh Nikzad, JPL, USA: CCD of 12 x 12 mm2, Device curvature modulation - 250 mm + 250 mm radius on the fly Operated at room temperature without obvious performance loss, but not fully characterized >> talk to Shouleh 11 11 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status

SDW 2017 Images courtesy of S. Nikzad, JPL Milestone developments 2013 (2) ESO / ITL 1st Curved Astronomical detector, 4k x 4k, 15 um detector 1st curved large detector ~ 200 um thick, frontside Limit of curvature ? 500 mm curvature radius Concave, fixed Cryogenically cooled Chracterized before & after curvature with similar result Curved above known

theoretical limit >> Talk to Mike Lesser, me 12 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017

ESO / ITL curving process: 2 Vac Overview of process steps: A B C H G E F I

13 D J Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Be flexible Milestone developments 2013 (3) MIT / LL SST Telescope (3.5 m, F1) designed for individually curved detectors in a mosaic 6 x 2 detectors of 2k x 4k, 15um each Not a prototype pioneering a very courageous decision, independent of anyone else

Convex, 5.44 m curvature radius Extremely accurate curvature ~3 um for combined curvature across mosaic Now a second mosaic built for 2nd telescope >> Talk to Vyshi S., Barry Burke 14 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 Processing of Curved CCD to Completion

Thinned, Back-illuminated CCD Wafer Handle Wafer Mount back-illuminated, functional CCD wafer (a) to carrier wafer (b+c) Thin handle wafer (d) Remove from platen (e) Dice wafer and deform CCD to spherical shape (f) SDW 2013 - 15 JAG MM/DD/YY Milestone developments 2013 (4) Its not a Trick its a SONY Patent Optics for Curved Detector Sony patent 2013-61476 in Japan

Back focal distance minimized Curved detector: 4 lenses Curved detector: 4 lenses 16 Already built with flat detector: >= 8 lenses (Nikon,

Olympus) >= 7 lenses (Olympus) Not possible with flat det. + ZOOM in connection with lens shift and curvature modification Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017

CURVED DETECTORS SINCE SDW 2013 17 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 ESO DEVELOPMENTS (1) A.) Broaden the interest base / inform the community B.) MOS instruments demand as seen e.g. in 4MOST C.) Open exchange with LAM and co-operating to see what is a common basis to push this forward for scientific detectors D.) ESA/ESO collaboration with support from highest

level: Space projects : better image quality, weight reduction, alignment insensitivity 18 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 ESO / ESA CURVED DETECTOR Example of an optical system simplification Study done on Sentinel 5 UV2VIS camera 19

Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 Original Optical Design Sentinel V 20 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status 20 SDW 2017 New Design with a curved detector 21

Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status 21 SDW 2017 ESO DEVELOPMENTS (2) Plans for novel Spectroscopic telescope facility L. Pasquini et al.: New telescope designs suitable for massively multiplexed spectroscopy, SPIE Digital Library 2016 & 2017 L. Pasquini et al.: ESO spectroscopic Facilty, IAU Symposium 331, 2017 Large 10 12 meter dedicated new spectroscopic telescope combined with

Larger FOV (~ 5 square degrees) survey Massively multiplexed spectroscopy (~ 5000 fibres) Matched sampling telescope instrument Fast cameras (~F1) and matched pixel size Several hundred standardized spectrographs with curved detectors 4k x 4k 15 um, R~ 250 mm 22 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 ESO DEVELOPMENTS (2a) 23

Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 JPL DEVELOPMENTS Continued on curvature development with thick detectors Confidential: Medical developments 19 mm curvature radius >> Talk to Shouleh Nikzad MIT DEVELOPMENTS

24 Continued on curvature development 2nd focal plane built, with even better performance Confidential developments (defense), high curvature >> Talk to Vyshi S., Barry Burke Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 SONY DEVELOPMENTS Kazuichiro Itonaga: A Novel Curved CMOS Image Sensor Integrated with Imaging System 2014 Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers

2014: About 100 backside illuminated 3D curved CMOS sensors fabricated in both smartphone and 35mm format (24 mm x 36 mm) as R&D project Process developed in house, intention for mass production, reliability testing done Huge commercial interest for mirrorless FF cameras, & compacts and others (later) Detector and System tests with special optics done no absolute numbers, but . 25 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017

SONY DEVELOPMENTS (2) 26 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status 26 SDW 2017 SONY DEVELOPMENTS (3) 27 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status 27 SDW 2017

NIKON DEVELOPMENTS 2016 bottom / 2017right 28 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 CANON DEVELOPMENTS At least 4 different recent patents on curved sensors: 2016-173496; 2016-197603; 2016-201425; 2016-213571 Modulation of the curvature on-the-fly (magn./piezo) Reduction of dark current

29 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 TOSHIBA DEVELOPMENTS 30 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 TELEDYNE Hybrid IR DEVELOPMENTS

Internal R&D project, team led by Majid Zandian: 31 Substrate removed HgCdTe array that is being bent in one (two) axis in a cylindrical / 3D shape hybridized with multiplexer Array size: 640 x 480 pixels, 15 micron pixel pitch A special new process was developed to enable this type of

flexible IR array to be made Production Process for curvature is ITAR controlled and a Teledyne trade secret Proof of concept is shown, no damage of the array observed >> Talk to Majid Z. / Jim B. Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO)

Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 Video Teledyne No redistribution of this video please ! 32 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 E2V DEVELOPMENTS Minimum scope demonstrator: CCD30-11, frontfaced,

thinned to 150 um [1024 X 256; 27 * 7 mm] Ceramic package with curved insert Cylindrical Curvature exclusively Curvature Radius = 7 cm Several devices have been made, More deliverable devices in progress; Very much appreciated that e2v / Teledyne work experimentally on this, but we really need 3D Curvature for all our examined applications 33

Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 APPLE DEVELOPMENTS Flat camera design: smartphones, laptops, tablets Focal length within ~ 20 % of Radius of Curvature of detector 34 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017

MICROSOFT / HRL* DEVELOPMENTS (originated from Hughes Research Laboratories) Brian Guenther et al.: Highly curved image sensors: a practical approach for improved optical performance, June 2017, Optics Express 35 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 MICROSOFT / HRL DEVELOPMENTS (2) 36

Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 MICROSOFT / HRL DEVELOPMENTS (3) CMOS back side illuminated 18 megapixel CMOS sensor (Aptina AR1820HS) 1.25 m pixel; the light sensitive m pixel; the light sensitive area 6.1 x 4.6 mm. thinned to 16 m pixel; the light sensitive m General curvature radius between 24.6 and 16.7 mm, 18.74 mm radius for camera dies bondig to mold surface using an epoxy adhesive / solder,

Deviations from the targeted radius of curvature of 0.3 m pixel; the light sensitive m RMS and 2.2m pixel; the light sensitive m peak to valley, measured interferometrically 37 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 MICROSOFT / HRL DEVELOPMENTS (4) Have done their homework to compare to literature and results, theoretically and practically High curvature and high accuracy New process wih movable die edges, such as to surpress tensile stress, rather foster compression

Optical System performance measured in comparison with Canon 1Ds with 50mm / F 1.2 (FF) with small curved sensor and special optics: Vignetting and sharpness especially in corners are outperformed (!) Claim that proess is scaleable to any die size nd curvature at high curvature accuracy and mass production compliant. 38 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 SONY ASTRO DEVELOPMENTS (1) Japanese patent 2017-102189: Sony 400mm f/2.8 lens and

whole lens family designed for a curved medium format sensor for real 6 x 4.5 format. High MTF, highest resolution, simple lens design, for high resolution curved detector. The patent mentions industrial, astronomical and photography. Sony clearly thinks about the possibility to make a medium format mirrorless system camera with curved sensor. 39 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO)

Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 SONY ASTRO DEVELOPMENTS (2) 40 Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 LAM / CEA / LETI DEVELOPMENTS Emmanuel Hugots talk - next 41

Olaf Iwert European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017 CONCLUSION / OUTLOOK Please think out of the box for SYSTEM Performance Curved sensors are just around the corner everywhere: Commercial products / Scientific Use Sooner or later Thank you for your attention ! 42 Olaf Iwert

European Southern Observatory (ESO) Curved Detectors Status SDW 2017

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