SEMICONDUCTORS

SEMICONDUCTORS

SEMICONDUCTORS EE 2303 Overview

Introduction What are P-type and N-type semiconductors?? What are Diodes? Forward Bias & Reverse Bias Characteristics Of Ideal Diode Shockley Equation I V Characteristics of Diodes Introduction Semiconductors are materials

whose electrical properties lie between Conductors and Insulators. Ex : Silicon and Germanium What are P-type and N-type ?

Semiconductors are classified in to P-type and N-type semiconductor P-type: A P-type material is one in which holes are majority carriers i.e. they are positively charged materials (++++) N-type: A N-type material is one in which electrons are majority charge carriers i.e. they are negatively charged materials (-----) Diodes

Electronic devices created by bringing together a p-type and n-type region within the same semiconductor lattice. Used for rectifiers, LED etc Diodes It is represented by the following symbol, where the arrow indicates the direction of positive current flow. Forward Bias and Reverse Bias

Forward Bias : Connect positive of the Diode to positive of supplynegative of Diode to negative of supply Reverse Bias: Connect positive of the Diode to negative of supplynegative of diode to positive of supply.

Characteristics of Diode Diode always conducts in one direction. Diodes always conduct current when Forward Biased ( Zero resistance) Diodes do not conduct when Reverse Biased (Infinite resistance)

I-V characteristics of Ideal diode I-V Characteristics of Practical Diode Rectification

Converting ac to dc is accomplished by the process of rectification. Two processes are used: Half-wave rectification; Full-wave rectification. Half-wave Rectification

Simplest process used to convert ac to dc. A diode is used to clip the input signal excursions of one polarity to zero. Shockley Equation

vD iD I s exp nVT kT

VT q 1 Is is the saturation current ~10 -14

VT 26 mV Vd is the diode voltage n emission coefficient (varies from 1 - 2 ) k = 1.38 1023 J/K is Boltzmanns constant q = 1.60 1019 C is the electrical charge of an electron. At a temperature of 300 K, we have

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