Section 4.19 - Lower Moreland Township School District

Section 4.19 - Lower Moreland Township School District

Britain: The Puritan Revolution Day 31-33 Chapter 16 (p.448-452) (4.19) Puritan Revolution Review Absolutism Characteristics Divine Right of Kings Sovereign power Centralization of Power Mercantilism Great Five Farms Commercial Code Edict of Fontainebleau Controlled nobility Palace of Versailles Bureaucracies Intendants (nobles of the robe) Standing army War of Spanish

Succession The Pyrenees exist no longer Balance of Power Grand Alliance v. Louis XIV Peace of Utrecht Crane Brintons Anatomy of a Revolution Proposed that all revolutions run in stages similar to a flu Begin with moderation, progress to crisis stage, return to normal Stage 1- Moderate Phase Revolution precipitated by financial crisis

Moderates (Nobles) take control Attempt to address immediate issues Stage 2- Radical Phase Radicals (Revolutionaries) take control Reign of Terror/Regicide Attempt a complete remake of society Stage 3- Thermidorian Phase Reactionaries (Bourgeoisie & Nobles) regain control Purge government of Radicals Reject Radical ideals Rule by tyranny Stage noted for decadence Stage 4- Restoration Phase Old order is restored with some changes adopted Constitutionalism Defined: gov. which is limited by law Balance between authority and power of gov. and liberty of people Can be written or unwritten

Can be single document (Constitution) or series of documents (Court decisions, parliamentary decisions, etc.) Can be monarchial or republican Not necessarily a democracy Franchise (vote) did not come until late 1800s England went from absolutism to a Constitutional monarchy during the 1600s How? English Absolutism Charles I comes to power James II Long Parliament

begins Brintons Phases Moderate Thorough 1603 1625 James I Stuart Reign begins 1629 1640 1649

Radical Thermidorian Restoration Interregnum Restoration Constitution 1653 1660 1685 1688 Charles II Stuart reigns

Charles I dissolves Parliament after it issues Petition of Right Charles I beheaded The Protectorate Glorious Revolution English Society Circa 1603 Proportionally larger middle class than the rest of Europe (except Netherlands) More social mobility than other nations House of Lords Old and declining nobility House of Commons Comprised of wealthy landowners Many had moved up from middle class

Richer, more educated than House of Lords Had power of the purse Paid taxes so long as they had a say in expenditures No stigma in paying taxes Adopted capitalism Largely Puritan (Ultra-zealous Calvinist) Anti Catholic Wanted to purify Anglican Church Wanted to eliminate Bishop Viewed as hierarchical and Catholic Adopted Protestant Work ethic Elizabeth I died in 1603. Enter James I (Stuart) Contemporary Description of James His beard very thin: his tongue too large for his mouth, and made him drink very uncomely, as if eating his drink, which came out of the cup of each side of his mouth. his skin was as soft as taffeta sarsnet, which felt so, because he never washed his hands, only rubbed his finger ends slightly with

the wet end of a napkin. His legs very weak, having had (as was thought) some foul play in his youth, or rather before he was born, that he was not able to stand at seven years of age, this weakness made him ever leaning on other men's shoulders, his walk was ever circular, his fingers in that walk ever fiddling about his codpiece. He was very temperate in his exercises, and in his diet, and not intemperate in his drinking. Sir Anthony Weldon Who What When Where How Why James I (r.1603-1625) 1603 Elizabeth I died with no heir English crown went to James the IV of Scotland son of Mary (Queen of the Scotts) Stuart

became James I of England Why? Raised Calvinist but rejected its democratic nature (Presbyters) the wisest fool in Christendom Had been King of Scotland for 35 years Known for his decadent lifestyle Believed in Absolutism!!!! Wrote book called The True Law of Free Monarchy Free meant free to rule as he pleased Rejected traditional power of Parliament Adopted the theory of the Divine right of kings King is responsible only to God Source: King James Address to Parliament, 1609 The state of monarchy is the supremest thing upon earth; for kings are not only God's lieutenants upon earth, and sit upon God's throne, but even by God himself are called gods. .. Kings are justly called gods, for that they exercise a manner or resemblance of divine power upon earth: for if you will consider the attributes to God, you shall see how they

agree in the person of a king. God hath power to create or destroy make or unmake at his pleasure, to give life or send death, to judge all and to be judged nor accountable to none; to raise low things and to make high things low at his pleasure, and to God are both souls and body due. And the like power have kings: they make and unmake their subjects, they have power of raising and casting down, of life and of death, judges over all their subjects and in all causes and yet accountable to none but God only. . . . James I As James IV of Scotland he was used to a weak Parliament Lectured Parliament on the royal rights There are no privileges and immunities which can stand against a divinely appointed King. Contradicted English tradition of Magna Carta Said he should not have to ask for money Wars with Spain left big debt and

James wasnt thrifty Took advise from incompetent friends Asserted Medieval right of Tunnage and poundage= right of king to collect fixed income on imports/exports George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham (15921628), by Peter Paul Rubens, 1625 The Gunpowder Plot James I was raised Calvinist But rejected Presbyterian style of democratic churches James believed in No Bishop, No King. Absolutist point of view Catholics had hoped that he would be sympathetic to them but did not lift restriction on them

Gun Powder Plot (November 5, 1605) Catholic terrorist plan to assassinate the King and entire Parliament Placed 2.5 tons in basement under Westminster Hall Led by Guy Fawkes Guy Fawkes night (Nov. 5, 1605) celebrates the discovery of the Plot James and his son Charles I were under influence of Archbishop Laud Guy Fawkes burned in Effigy Todays Agenda Review Stuff Finish Chapter 16 Puritan Revolution Homework

Read handout, The English place limits on Monarchial Power and answer Questions 1-3 in a short paragraph Review How was the English nobles of the H of C different from the French noble class? To what political belief did James I ascribe? Evidence? True law of Free Monarch Tonnage and Poundage What is the French equivalent to: No bishop. No King Parliament What are the four stages of a revolution according to Crane Brinton? James I and Religion James I had absolutist view of religion No Bishop. No King!

Had been petitioned by numerous puritan ministers to rid England of Popish errors Wedding rings, confirmations, certain hats, kneeling Instead King James forbade petitions to the King Commissioned the writing of a standard Bible King James Bible (1603-1611) Influenced by Archbishop Laud Wanted uniform, centralized standards throughout Britain In 1627 he imposed the Book of Common Prayer and bishoprics Puritans and Presbyterians persecuted Play from 3:00- Big Picture V

Charles I (1625-1649) An Absolutist Reasserted justification of his rule by divine right of Kings Early Rule plagued by financial crisis due to the 30 Years War To save & raise money Quartered soldiers in homes Led to martial law in certain regions of England

Army is judge, jury, executioner in any dispute Forced loans Collected Taxes not approved by Parliament Arrested over 70 nobles who refused to loan But Still needed money Convened Parliament in 1628 to ask for more $$ The Petition of Right Political document which asserts limits to the Kings power

Asserted Parliaments right to levy taxes Called for due process Right of habeas corpus (trial) No quartering No martial law in peacetime Charles accepted provisions at first Later he dissolved Parliament and ruled as an absolutist The King willeth that right be done according to the laws and customs of the realm; and that the statutes be put in due execution, that the subject may have no just

cause of complaint for any wrong or oppression, contrary to their just rights and liberties, to the preservation whereov he holds himself in conscience as well obliged of his just prerogative. Thorough Period (1629-1640) Charles attempted to rule without Parliament (as an absolutist) Ship Money Dispute Traditionally coastal towns paid taxes or provided ships in time of war Charles I needed money Extended medieval policy of ship money to all towns in England not just coastal cities An absolutist view of power Parliament (most lived inland) resisted new tax without its consent Short Parliament

In 1640 Charles called Parliament for $$ Refused his demands unless he agreed to Petition of Right/Church reforms Charles I dissolved the Parliament, called for new elections BUT the same members returned Long Parliament Charles was desperate for $$ to stop the Scots Long Parliament (1640-1649) Enacted legislation curbing Kings power (Moderates) Triennial Act Parliament must be summoned every 3 years Impeached Laud & abolished his ecclesiastical court I.e. his central control of the Anglican Church Demanded royal advisers be removed and put to death Abolished the Star Chamber

Abolished bishops (Calvinist view against clergy) Charles Agreed Civil War (Part I) Irish rebellion broke out but Parliament would not give King an army In 1642 Charles tried to arrest certain Puritans in Parliament who opposed him

Crowd of 4 thousand stopped him Charles declared war on Parliament Cavaliers Supported King Comprised of clergy, old nobility from House of Lords, and Irish Catholics who feared Puritanism Roundhead Puritans and Congregationalists Named for close haircuts of the Puritans Allied with Scotland in return for Solemn League Sign Solemn League and Covenant Made Presbyterianism established religion of England, Scotland, and Ireland Civil War (1642-1649)

Royalists (Cavaliers) Parliamentarians (Roundheads) a House of Lords House of Commons a N & W England S & E England a Aristocracy Puritans a Large landowners Merchants a Church officials

Townspeople a More rural More urban Oliver Cromwell Radical Puritan leader of the Roundheads New Model Army His army was religiously zealous and highly organized Professional (not a militia) 1st in English history Promoted on merit, not birth Known as the Ironsides Fought beyond their region of birth

Viewed as dangerous b/c in followed Cromwell alone, not Parliament The Commonwealth (1649-1653) (Interregnum) Cromwell called for the execution of Charles I for treason Parliament resisted Prides Purge Cromwell sent in General Pride to get rid of members of Parliament who disagreed with him Cromwell purged the Parliament to a Rump Rump Parliament had 500 members in 1640 and sunk to 150 in 1649 Cromwell reduced it to 50-60 King Charles I condemned for treason and executed regicide in 1649 Rump Par. Vote was 68 to 67 British Isles declared a republican

commonwealth http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rKqJV6qC_2Y The Protectorate (1653-1660) England is theoretically a republic Monarchy and House of Lords abolished In reality its a military dictatorship Rump Parliament resisted Cromwell Cromwell disbanded Parliament and became Lord Protector 1653 Instrument of Government Written constitution Theoretically gave power of purse to Parliament Cromwell tore up document Ruled as military dictatorship Divided England into 12 military districts Closed ale houses, prohibited sports, dancing, gambling 1658 Cromwell died

His son unable to retain control The Protectorate Cromwell granted religious toleration Except to Catholics Not a popular policy with English Gave rise to new sects Levellers Radical revolutionaries led by John Lilburne (civilian) The Agreement of the People (their political manifesto) Abolish corruption within the Parliament & judicial process Toleration of religious differences Laws written in the vernacular Universal suffrage as a natural right 1. That no man be taken or

imprisoned, but per legem terrae, that is by the common law, statute law, or custom of England. 2. No man shall be disseised, that is, put out of seisin, or dispossessed of his freehold (that is, lands or livelihood) or of his liberties or free customs (that is, of such franchises and freedoms, and free customs, as belong to him by his free birthright) unless it be by the lawful judgement, that is verdict of his equals (that is of men of his own condition) or by the law of the land (that is, to speak it once for all) by the due course and processes of law. 3. No man shall be in any sort destroyed unless it be by the verdict of his equals or according to the law of the land. Other Religious Sects

Quakers Society of Friends or Quakers insisted that believers can have revelations (inner light) of spiritual truth and rejected hierarchies Rejected church authority Pacifists Allowed for female preachers Led by George Fox Diggers Agrarian communists led by Gerrard Winstanley and William Everard rejected the idea of property land should be distributed to the poor Food prices had reached record highs in the 1640s alarmed the Commonwealth government and angered the local landowners Invasion of Ireland

Cromwell regarded Irish Catholics as treasonous and Scots treacherous Irish were Catholic (remember the Gun Powder Plot) Scots not pleased with Stuart execution (he was a Scot) Invaded Ireland in 1649: Protestants had been massacred during the Irish Rebellion of 1641 in Ulster Irish Confederate Army had signed treaty with the Royalists (supported the Stuarts) Invasion noted for its brutality Siege of Drogheda

massacred Irish Garrisons Priests, women, children murdered Killed 40% of ethnic Irish Protestants now take over aristocracy of entire island (not just Ulster) (mostly absentee landlords) Sewed seeds of hatred Massacre of Drogheda 25:34 Ulster Plantation Established Under King James Ulster Plantation: 1609-1660 % Of Land Owned by Catholics in Ireland

[in green] Irish Threat of Revolution England established a penal code over Ireland to keep it in check during the early 1600s (1607) Catholic clergy was banned 'recusant fines' levied for not attending Anglican mass Catholics could not vote Catholic teachers could not teach Catholic parents could not send children to Catholic schools Catholics could not take a degree at Trinity College Catholic Irishmen could not purchase land Catholic Irishmen could not own a horse worth more than 5 pounds Irish exports are prohibited Irish imports must come from England Ireland was the most repressed

population in Europe Click for Link The Protectorate Economic Policy Mercantile Policy Navigation Act of 1651 Required that English goods be transported on English ships Helped develop English merchant marine maritime attack on the Dutch, preying on the Spanish empire Anglo Dutch Wars Fought over Navigation Acts England took New Amsterdam Stuart Restoration Thermidorian Reaction Charles II coroneted 1660

Agreed to pardon many regicides 9 were drawn and quartered Cromwells body exhumed & decapitated Excess democracy or levelling is considered abhorrent

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