Romanticism - Tamaqua Area School District

Romanticism - Tamaqua Area School District

ROMANTICISM The Spirit of the Age (1790e A sense of a shared 1850) vision among the Romantics.

e Early support of the French Revolution. e Rise of the individual alienation. e Dehumanization of industrialization. Radical poetics / politics an obsession

with violent change. 1. Emotions! Passion! Irrationality!

A Growing Distrust of Reason Early 19c Enlightenmen

Society Society is is good, curbing curbing t good,

violent violent impulses! impulses! Romanticis Civilization

Civilization m corrupts! corrupts! e The essence of human experience is

subjective and emotional. e Human knowledge is small compared to other great historical forces.

e Individual rights are dangerous efforts at selfishness the community is more important.

The Romantic Movement e Began in the 1790s and peaked in the 1820s. e Mostly in Northern Europe, especially in Britain and Germany.

e A reaction against classicism. e The Romantic Hero: Greatest example was Lord Byron

Tremendously popular among the European reading public.

Youth imitated his haughtiness and rebelliousness. Characteristics of

Romanticism The Engaged & Enraged Artist: The artist apart from society. The artist as social

critic/revolutionary. The artist as genius. Wandering Above the

Sea of Fog Caspar David Friedrich, 1818 Lady Macbeth - Henry Fuseli,

1794 2. The Individual Characteristics of

Romanticism The Individual/ The Dreamer: Individuals have unique, endless

potential. Self-realization comes through art Artists are the true philosophers. The Dreamer

Gaspar David Friedrich, 1835 Solitary Tree Caspar David Friedrich, 1823

3. The Power & Fury of Nature Characteristics of

Romanticism Glorification of Nature: Peaceful, restorative qualities [an

escape from industrialization and the dehumanization it creates]. Awesome, powerful, horrifying aspects of nature.

Indifferent to the fate of humans. Overwhelming power of nature. An Avalanche in the Alps Philip James de Loutherbourg,

1803 Sunset After a Storm On the Coast of Sicily Andreas Achenbach, 1853

The Deluge Francis Danby, 1840 Tree of Crows

Caspar David Friedrich, 1822 The Wreck of the Hope (aka The Sea of Ice) Caspar David Friedrich, 1821

Shipwreck Joseph Turner, 1805 The Raft of the Medusa Thodore Gricault, 1819

The Eruption of Vesuvius - John Martin 4. Science Can Be Dangerous!

Isaac Newton William Blake, 1795 Dr. Frankensteins Adam & Eve??

5. The "New" Technology Is Dehumanizing Rain, Steam, and Speed

Joseph Mallord William Turner, 1844 Rain, Steam,

& Speed (details) The Slave Ship

Joseph Mallord William Turner, 1842 The Slave Ship

(details) 6. Romanticizing Country Life Flatford Mill John Constable,

1817 The Corn Field John Constable,

1826 The Hay Wain - John Constable, 1821 7. The Gothic:

"Romanticizing" the Middle Ages Characteristics of Romanticism Revival of Past Styles:

Gothic & Romanesque revival. Neo-Gothic architectural style. Medieval ruins were a favorite theme for art and poetry. Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishops

Ground John Constable, 1825 Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows John Constable, 1831

Hadleigh Castle - John Constable, 1829 Eldena Ruin

Gaspar David Friedrich, 1825 Winter Landscape with Church Gaspar David Friedrich, 1811 British Houses of Parliament

1840-1865 8. The Exotic, And the Occult Characteristics of

Romanticism The Supernatural: Ghosts, fairies, witches, demons. The shadows of the minddreams & madness.

The romantics rejected materialism in pursuit of spiritual self-awareness. They yearned for the unknown

and the unknowable. Cloister Cemetery in the Snow Caspar David Friedrich, 18171819 Abbey in an Oak Forest

Caspar David Friedrich, 18091810 Mad Woman With a

Mania of Envy Theodore Gericault, 1822-1823

Pity - William Blake, 1795 The Great Red Dragon and the Woman

Clothed with the Sun William Blake, Stonehenge - John Constable, 1836

Nightmare (The Incubus) Henry Fuseli, 1781 Manfred and the Witch of the Alps

John Martin - 1837 Witches Sabbath Francisco Goya,

1798 Procession of Flagellants on Good Friday Francisco Goya, 1793

Saturn Devours His Son Francisco Goya, 1819-1823

9. Nationalism Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi

Eugne Delacroix, 1827 Liberty Leading the People Eugne Delacroix, 1830

Detail of the Musket Bearer Delacoix, himself

The Rise of the Cartheginian Empire Joseph Turner, 1815 His Majestys Ship, Victory

(Trafalgar) - John Constable, 1806 An Officer of the Imperial Horse Guard

Thodore Gricault, 1814 Napoleon at the St. Bernard

Pass David, 1803 The Shooting of May 3, 1808 Francisco Goya, 1815

Pandemonium - John Martin, 1841 10. Interest in Exotic

Foreign Lands Characteristics of Romanticism Exoticism:

A sense of escape from reality. A psychological/moral justification of imperialism Grand Canal, Venice

Joseph Mallord William Turner, 1835 Massacre of Chios - Eugne Delacroix, 1824

The Fanatics of Tangiers Eugne Delacroix, 1837-1838 The Sultan of Morocco and His

Entourage Eugne Delacroix, 1845 Women of Algiers in Their Apartment Eugne Delacroix, 1834

The Turkish Bath Jean Auguste Ingres, 1852-1863 The Bullfight - Francisco Goya

Charge of the Mamelukes, May 2nd, 1808 Francisco Goya, 1814 The Royal Pavillion at Brighton

John Nash, 1815-1823 11. Return to Christian Mysteries

God as the Architect - William Blake, 1794 Elohim Creating Abraham William Blake, 1805

Body of Abel Found by Adam and Eve William Blake, 1825 Faust and Mephistopheles

Eugne Delacroix, 1826-1827 The Seventh Plague of Egypt John Martin, 1823 The

Cathedral Gaspar David Friedrich, 1818 The

Cathedral (details) Gaspar David Friedrich, 1818

The Great Age of the Novel e Gothic Novel: Jane Eyre - Charlotte Bronte (1847) Wuthering Heights - Emily Bronte (1847)

e Historical Novel: Ivanhoe - Sir Walter Scott (1819)

Les Miserables - Victor Hugo (1862) The Three Musketeers Alexander Dumas The Great Age of the Novel

e Science Fiction Novel: Frankenstein - Mary Shelley (1817) Dracula Bramm Stoker (1897)

e Novel of Purpose: Hugh Trevar - Thomas Holcroft (1794) Other Romantic Writers

Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm - Grimms Fairy Tales (1814-1816)

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe - Faust (1806-1832) The Romantic Poets

Percy Byssche Shelley Lord Byron (George Gordon) Samuel Taylor

Coleridge William Wordsworth John Keats

George Gordons (Lord Byron) Poem The Prisoner

of Chillon Mary Shelley Frankenste in

Sir Walter Scott Ivanhoe

William Wordsworth s Poem, Tintern Abbey

Samuel Taylor Coleridges Poem, The Rime

of the Ancient Mariner Romanticism: The Great

Paradox The Political Implications e Romanticism could reinforce the greatest themes of political liberalism or political

conservatism. e Contributed to growing nationalist movements.

The concepts of the Volk and the Volkgeist. The uniqueness of cultures was

emphasized. Bibliographic Sources CGFA:

A Virtual Art Museum. Romanticism on Artchive.


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