RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION AND ITS APPLICATIONS Dr. K. Vairamani, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics, St. Josephs College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620 002. E-mail: [email protected] Cell: 9943147283
Outline What is RFID? Need for RFID Active and passive tags Typical applications RFID products Manufacturers in India Common problems in RFID
History of RFID The first known application of RFID was done in World War II where in RFID was used to identify the planes (enemy or own) using radar. In 1935 under Scottish physicist Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt, who headed a secret project, the British developed the first active identify friend or foe (IFF) system.
They put a transmitter on each British plane. When it received signals from radar stations on the ground, it began broadcasting a signal back that identified the aircraft as friendly. RFID works on this same basic concept. A signal is sent to a transponder, which wakes up and either reflects back a signal (passive system) or broadcasts a signal (active system). Mario Cardullo's passive
radio transponder device in 1973 was the first true ancestor of modern RFID. Commercial applications began in 1980. What is RFID? RFID is a common term employed to describe a device
which is employed in transferring data with the help of radio waves. RFID is the wireless non-contact use of radio frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data, for the purpose of automatically identifying and tracking objects attached to it. RFID devices is used as a substitute of bar code or a magnetic strip which is noticed at the back of an ATM card or credit card, it gives a unique identification code to each item. Similar to the magnetic strip or bar code, RFID devices too have
to be scanned to get the details (identifying information). Need for RFID A fundamental advantage of RFID gadgets above the other stated devices is that the RFID device is not required to be placed exactly near to the scanner or RFID code reader. As all of us are well aware of the difficulty which store billers face while scanning the bar codes and but
obviously the credit cards & ATM cards need to be swiped all though a special card reader. RFID device can function from few feet away (approx 20 feet for high frequency devices) of the scanner machine. Avoid duplication RFID vs. Barcode Advantages of RFID Efficiency: RFID can scan multiple items at once Durability: RFID can handle exposure to sun & rain
RFID allows for greater security than barcodes Disadvantages of RFID Materials like metal & liquid can impact signal Sometimes not as accurate or reliable as barcode scanners Cost RFID readers can be 10x more expensive than barcode scanners Implementation can be difficult & time consuming
Basic components of an RFID System The transponder or tag can be either active of passive tag. It reacts to the signals from the reader or writer or interrogator which in turn conveys signals to the computer. RFID Tags RFID tags comprise of a RFID transceiver for
transferring data from one system to another. There are 2 kinds of RFID tags Active tags Passive tags. Passive RFID Tags Passive tags comprise of 3 key components an in-built chip: generates a unique identifier code for the particular tag
an antenna: catches incoming radio waves and sends them back out again a substrate: The backing material (typically paper or Plastic) to which the antenna and chip are fixed Passive RFID tags are smaller in size as well as cheap. Active RFID Tags
Active tags comprise of same components that exists in passive tags and is incorporated with a built-in power supply. an internal battery that enables them to have extremely long read ranges as well as large memory banks. Maximum of the active tags make use of batteries whereas some of them work on solar cells. Typically, active RFID tags are powered by a battery that will last between 3 5 years, but when the battery fails, the active tag will need to be replaced. As the active tag market matures, replaceable batteries will be a cost saving option. The
systems functionality depends entirely on the type of tag chosen for the application. The inbuilt power system facilitates the tag to be used as an independent reader which is competent of transferring information devoid of outer assistance. Different types of active tags Transponders In an active transponder tag, the reader (like passive systems) will send a signal first, and then the active transponder will send a signal back with the relevant
information. Transponder tags are very efficient because they conserve battery life when the tag is out of range of the reader. Commonly used in secure access control and in toll booth payment systems. Beacons In a system that uses an active beacon tag, the tag will not wait to hear the readers signal. Instead, true to its name, the tag will beacon, or send out its specific information every 3 5 seconds. Beacon tags are very common in the oil and gas industry, as well as mining and
cargo tracking applications. Active tags beacons can be read hundreds of meters away, but, in order to conserve battery life, they may be set to a lower transmit power in order to reach around 100 meters read range. Read only and R/W tags Read Only (RO) RO tags are preprogrammed with a unique number like a serial number
Write Once Read Many (WORM) or Read Write (RW). WORM tags are pre-programmed but additional information can be added to tags. RW tags can be updated dynamically. Most library applications use RW tags. Unique identification code
RFID tag has got a Unique Identification code called UID. LF RFID tags that operates in the 125-134KHz spectrum, the UID is a Read-Only number with 64 bit in length. HF RFID tags that operates in the 13.56MHz HF spectrum the UID again is a Read-Only number with 64-bit in length. UHF tags has read/write capabilities with ID size
between 32-64 bit in length. RFID operating frequency Low Frequency (LF) 125-135 KHz High Frequency (HF) 13.56 MHz Ultra High Frequency (UHF) 868-930 MHz Microwave or Super high frequency (SHF) 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz
125 KHz RFID clamshell card When a 125kHz card is powered up, it immediately begins to transmit its card number. Mifare The Mifare standard was originally created as a
ticketing solution for transport systems, and at the same time addressed the security issues in 125kHz technology by enabling two way communication between the card and reader. This saw the introduction of card encryption and the ability to store data on the card. Mifare technologies store the card number in one of the storage areas on the card, known as sectors. When the card approaches the RF field of
the reader, the card and reader begin a secure communication session using shared encryption keys. RFID Applications Tracking Books in Libraries Authorized building access (Prox Cards) Passports (US passports recently) Prison inmates (embedded)
For toll booths (or any pay for entry system) Airport Baggage ID Car keys, wireless entry and ignition Animal tracking and livestock tracking Logistics Retails Shoes, clothes, cell phones, food products Hospital Patients Instant history tracking
RFID Standards and specifications Tracking Animals ISO 11784 Specifies the structure of the ID code ISO 11785 Specifies how transponder is activated ISO 14223/1 Specifies RF code for advanced transponders Credit Cards ISO 15693 Specifies modulation and coding schemes Passports and proximity cards
ISO 14443 Specifies modulation and coding schemes General Frequency bands ISO 18000 series Standard RFID Operating Frequencies ISO 18000-2 <135 KHz ISO 18000-3 13.56 MHZ ISO 18000-4
2.45 GHz ISO 18000-6 860-960 MHz ISO 18000-7 433 MHZ (active) RFID enabled products NFC Sticker Wrist band RFID Smart card
Laundry tag Metal mount tag Nail tag Tire tag Animal tracking Foot ring tag Electronic ear tags Implant glass tags
RFID Waste bin tag Security cable seal tag Key tag Epoxy tag Specialty tag Token tag RFID in library management RFID Manufacturers in India
Common problems with RFID Reader collision. Tag collision. Present scenario In Osaka, Japan school childrens garments are being chipped with RFID. A monitoring system in Doncaster England, tracks
kids by radio chips placed in their uniforms. US Healthcare had adopted methods of using both active and passive RFID technology to collect and monitor patient medical activity for nearly a decade. RFID and IoT Questions?
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