RF-ID at ITE Bengt Oelmann Mitthgskolan, ITE Outline RF-ID technology overview RF-ID project at ITE RF-ID Motivation Increasing degree of automation in the production process requires increasing demand on automatic identification Automatic ID systems Barcode RF-ID technology

(cont) RF-ID Motivation RF-ID technology - a key technology It works without direct contact to the object There is no need for a direct line of sight Data can be stored on the object A simultaneous identification of various objects in a reading field is possible Electronic Identification Methods Automatic ID Systems grouped by physical medium Magnetic stripes Barcode RF-ID

RF-ID divided into groups by The frequency band they are using The power supply technique they are using RF-ID is the only technology that can exchange data in two directions Basic RF-ID function RF Control Signal processing Transponder antenna Transponder chip RF-ID

Reader/writer unit R/W antenna System Transponder: repeats the received signal with encoded information (e.g ID of transponder) Reader/writer unit: Sends a activation signal and analyses the response Transponder types Transponder ferrite rod air coil encapsulated in glass flexible material

Smart labels Smart labels new development (started 3-4 years ago) air coil type laminated into flexible materials (like paper or foils) inexpensive transponder type Available from a few producers Application Specific Capabilities Important criteria for transponder design Frequency band Energy supply Transmission protocol Read/write capability

data capacity anti-collision capability (multiple access) Frequency Governmental regulations limits frequency bands that can be used emission power Available frequency bands 100 - 135 kHz 3 - 30 MHz 2.45 GHz 5.8 GHz (cont) Frequency Selecting

frequency band reflection on surfaces absorption in materials energy demands size of electronic parts and antenna speed of data transmission Energy supply Transponder Active Has its own power supply (battery) Sends data over several meters Limited life-time Passive Without power supply Energy through induction

Transmission length about 1 m live forever Technical features - overview Main frequency band Energy supply Data Estimated costs exchange (transponder) Field of application 100 135 kHz Passive R/O , R/W 1 5 Euro

13.56 MHz Passive R/O , R/W 0.5 2.5 Euro 2.45 GHz Passive, Active R/O , R/W > 5 Euro car enabling system, Animal ID, logistics in closed systems card systems, smart labels, logistics in open

systems container- and vehicle-ID, logistics in open/closed systems Source: Recent development and Future Require ments, ICECS99 Technical requirements on passive RF-ID for different applications Application frequency Reading range Data capacity R/O R/W

Anti collision Animal ID kHz 1m 64 bit R/O NO Vehicle enabling kHz < 0.1 m

64 bit R/O or R/W NO Vehicle ID GHz 15m ? R/W NO Material flow

kHz 0.1 1 m 64 bit R/O YES/NO Personell ID kHz 1m 64 bit R/O YES/NO

Airline luggage MHz 1m 256/384 R/W YES Parcel service MHz 1m 256/384

R/W YES Ticketing MHz 1m 256/384 R/W YES Textile tracking MHz 1m

256/384 R/W YES Source: Recent development and Future Requirements, ICECS99 Factors for frequency choice Dimension of antenna Data transmission speed Increase of impact Energy demand Surface reflection Penetration through water

Low frequency kHz High frequency MHz Ultra high frequency GHz Application Development steps of RF-ID Wild animals, Military applications Industrial applications in closed systems

Industrial applications in open systems re-use transponder logistics vehicle ID Person ID single-use transponder logistics tickets parcels luggage Neck collar transponders Size Radio devices

Agriculture, Animals Pets Smart labels Injectable glass transponders 1990 Plastic transponders Glass transponders 1995 2000 Time

RF-ID project at ITE RF-ID Project RF-ID technology RF-ID applications RF-ID Applications RF-ID applications Overview Goal: get an overview of the area Deliverable: Report Resources: - Demonstrator Goal: demonstrate applications of RF-ID using commercially available HW and Windows application programs developed at ITE

Deliverable: Working demonstrator Resources: Bengt Oelmann, Richard Johansson RF-ID Technology RF-ID technology Radio system Low power electronics Material technology Radio system Radio system Deals with problems related to: system model selection of frequency bands antennas power requirement multiple access

error control specification of radio electronics Goal: determine system model for the design and specify the key design parameters Deliverable: Reports (MSc. Thesis) Resources: Youshi Xu, Bengt Oelmann, Johan Sidn, Peter Jonsson Low Power Electronics Low Power Electronics Deals with problems related to: Digital electronics Analog (RF) electronics Antenna interfaces Power supply Goal: Find circuit solutions for

transponder design. Deliverable:Lab. Report on lowpower digital design technique for digital logic. Resources: Bengt Oelmann, Hkan Norell Material technology Material technology Deals with problems related to: IC technology Assembly: antenna-to-IC, transponder-to-paper Approach for research RF-ID system Radio system System optimization Design model Requirements on circuits

Requirements on technology Material technology IC process Assembly techniques Working model COMPLEX! SCANNER read/write unit simple RFID-tag

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