Review Prevention of postoperative peritoneal adhesions: a ...

Review Prevention of postoperative peritoneal adhesions: a ...

Review Prevention of postoperative peritoneal adhesions: a review of the literature The American Journal of Surgery Vol 201, No 1, January 2011 Dr. Somayeh Fallahzadeh

Patients undergoing laparotomy for various reasons have a 90% risk of developing intraperitoneal adhesions. the incidence of re-admissions directly related to adhesions varies from 5% to 20%. It is estimated that in the UnitedStates there are 117 hospitalizations for adhesion-related problems per 100,000 people and the total cost for hospital and surgeon expenditures is about $1.3 billion. In some European countries the direct medical costs for adhesionrelated

problems were more than the surgical expenditurefor gastric cancer and almost as much as for rectal cancer. Clinical relevance of adhesion-related complications The most common adhesion-related problem is small-bowel obstruction (SBO). )Adhesions are the most frequent cause of SBO in the developed world and are responsible for 60% to 70% of SBO.( adhesions have been implicated as a major cause of secondary infertility. )Pelvic adhesions were found to be

responsible in 15% to 40% of infertilities( adhesions are responsible for many cases of chronic abdominal pain although this concept remains a controversial issue Adhesions Makes reoperation more difficult, adds an average of 24 minutes to the surgery, increases the risk of iatrogenic bowel injury,and makes future laparoscopic surgery more difficult Risk factors for adhesion-related problems

the most important risk factor for adhesive SBO is the type of surgery and extent of peritoneal damage Surgeries of the colon and rectum are associated with a higher risk of adhesion related problems than surgeries to the small bowel, appendix, or gallbladder. Total colectomy with ileal pouchanal anastomosis is the procedure with the highest incidence for adhesion-related problems with an overall incidence of SBO of 19.3% Other highrisk procedures include gynecologic surgeries (11.1%) and open colectomy (9.5%) In general, open procedures, with the exception of appendectomy, have a

higher risk for the development of adhesions than a laparoscopic intervention. Other possible risk factors include: age younger than 60 years, previous laparotomy within 5 years, peritonitis, multiple laparotomies, emergency surgery, omental resection, penetrating abdominal trauma, especially gunshot wounds.

possible risk factors for recurrence of SBO Numbers of previous episodes of SBO requiring adhesiolysis nonsurgical management of the initial episode A multicenter prospective study of 286 patients with adhesive SBO and a 5-year follow-up period identified risk factors: age younger than 40years, the presence of matted adhesions, surgical complications during the surgical management of the

first episode prevention Any prevention strategy should be safe, effective, practical,and cost effective The prevention strategies can be grouped into 4 categories:

general principles, surgical techniques, mechanical barriers, chemical agents General principles Intraoperative techniques such as: avoiding unnecessary peritoneal dissection avoiding spillage of intestinal contents or gallstones

the use of starch-free gloves gallstone spillage The role of gallstone spillage in adhesion formation is not clear Infected gallstones were associated with more extensive adhesions Some investigators suggested that noninfected gallstones do not increase the risk of adhesion formation In more than 7% of laparoscopic cholecystectomies there is accidental perforation of the gallbladder and spillage of gallstones and about one third of these patients will be discharged with retained intraperitoneal stones

Memon et al reported no adhesive SBO over a 7-year period in 106 patients who had gallstone spillage during cholecystectomy Surgical techniques open vs laparoscopic surgery the incidence of adhesionrelated re-admissions: 7.1% in open versus .2% in laparoscopic cholecystectomies, 9.5% in open versus 4.3% in laparoscopic colectomy, 15.6% in open versus 0% in laparoscopic total abdominal hysterectomy, 23.9% in open versus 0% in laparoscopic adnexal surgery

Only in appendectomies there was no difference between the 2 techniques closure vs nonclosure of the peritoneum Many experimental studies have shown that nonclosure of the peritoneum was associated with decreased adhesion formation. some studies reported no difference or even decreased adhesion formation with closure At repeat surgery, women with peritoneal closure had a significantly higher incidence of adhesions than those

without closure (57% vs 20.6%) In view of these findings it is prudent to avoid peritoneal closure during laparotomies. Mechanical barriers In theory, inert materials that prevent contact between the damaged serosal surfaces for the first few critical days allow separate healing of the injured surfaces and may help in the prevention of adhesion formation. Mechanical barriers include: bioabsorbable films

bioabsorbable gels solid membranes fluid barrier agents bioabsorbable films Hyaluronic acid/carboxymethylcellulose (Seprafilm) Oxidized regenerated cellulose (Interceed) Hyaluronic acid/carboxymethylcellulose (Seprafilm)

the most extensively tested adhesion prevention agent in general surgery. It is absorbed within 7 days and excreted from the body within 28 days. Its safe with regard to systemic or specific complications, such as: abdominal abscess wound sepsis anastomotic leak prolonged ileus

175 evaluable patients with colectomy and ileoanal pouch procedure, compared Seprafilm with controls. Seprafilm group had significantly fewer and less severe adhesions 70 patients undergoing an elective rectal resection who needed an ileostomy into a Seprafilm and a control Group. The study reported a significant reduction of the mean adhesion scores in the treatment group.there was a tendency to easier closure and a lower incidence of perioperative complications.

71 patients undergoing Hartmanns resection into a Seprafilm and a control group. Although the incidence of adhesions did not differ significantly between the study groups . the Seprafilm group showed a significant reduction of the severity of adhesions 62 patients who underwent surgery for rectal carcinoma.Seprafilm significantly reduced the adhesions in both the midline incision area and the peristomal area. This was associated with shorter surgical time, reduced blood loss, and smaller incisions for ileostomy closure 51 patients who underwent transabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery, analyzed the incidence of early SBO in patients who had Seprafilm applied and in control patients with no treatment.The incidence of early

SBO was 0% in the Seprafilm groupand 20% in the control group Oxidized regenerated cellulose (Interceed) is a mechanical barrier that forms a gelatinous protective coat and breaks down and is absorbed within 2 weeks A meta analysis of 7 randomized studies showed that Interceed decreased the incidence of adhesions by 24.2% _ 3.3% when compared with untreated sites.

Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene It is an inert, nonabsorbable permanent membrane that needs to be removed a few days after application. It has been studied mainly in gynecologic surgeries with favorable results. Its usefulness is limited because of the need to be removed surgically at a later stage. Bioabsorbable gels SprayGel is a sprayable hydrogel that adheres to the

tissues for a period of 5 to 7 days. After several days it is hydrolyzed into water-soluble molecules and is absorbed. Although early preliminary clinical trials showed its effectiveness, a larger-scale study was stopped owing to a lack of efficacy.31 Fluid agents Adept (icodextrin 4% solution) is used as an irrigant fluid throughout surgery and at the end of surgery 1,000 mL is instilled and left in

the peritoneal cavity The fluid remains in the peritoneal cavity for several days and separates the damaged surfaces during the critical period of adhesion formation Adept with lactated Ringers solution in women undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic surgery for adhesiolysis. Adept was significantly more likely to reduce adhesions and improve fertility scores than

lactated Ringers solution. Intergel solution contains .5% ferric hyaluronate, is another solution used for adhesion prevention. use of Intergel in abdominal surgery in which the gastrointestinal tract was opened led to an unacceptably high rate of postoperative complications THE END

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