Prototyping Terry Winograd Computer Science Department Stanford University Learning Goals Understand the uses of different types of prototypes for different
kinds of designs and be able to choose appropriately Know the basic techniques for low-fidelity prototyping Be able to determine and apply the relevant techniques for your project
What is a Prototype? A representation of a design before the final artifacts exist To evoke reactions from stakeholders in the design process Designers Users
Clients Uses of Prototypes Design by doing Clarify goals and requirements Reflective conversation with the materials Give users the experience of use
Look and feel Test specific aspects Compare alternatives Make changes Show feasibility for buy-in Proof of concept
Manage expectations What to Prototype? Prototypes provide the means for examining design problems and evaluating solutions. Selecting the focus
of a prototype is the art of identifying the most important open design questions. Houde and Hill What do Prototypes Prototype? Design Process UNDERSTAND
OBSERVE IMPLEMENT VISUALIZE EVALUATE
PROTOTYPE Iterative Prototyping Quality is a function of the number of iterations and refinements a design undergoes before it hits the street.
To get a good idea, get lots of ideas. Enlightened trial and error is better than than the planning of a flawless intellect. FAIL EARLY
(Cost of failure vs. project time curve) From Hans Haenlein, IDEO FAIL OFTEN (Risk vs. iteration curve)
From Hans Haenlein, IDEO 3 stages of prototyping # of ideas INSPIRE EVOLVE
VALIDATE project time LOW prototype RESOLUTION
driven specs spec HIGH driven RESOLUTION prototypes From Hans Haenlein, IDEO Designing the Prototype
Choose what aspects to prototype for relevance to your project goals Identify measurable design goals Good enough to provide feedback but flexible enough for significant changes to be made down the line
What can be a Prototype?
Sketches Diagrams & Frameworks
Hand Made Constructions Machined Constructions Virtual Models Graphics Packaging Spaces Role Play, Experiences Video
Prototypes Look like Work like Experience like .. PROTOTYPE RAPID
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