Research in Human-Computer Interaction

Research in Human-Computer Interaction

Prototyping Terry Winograd Computer Science Department Stanford University Learning Goals Understand the uses of different types of prototypes for different

kinds of designs and be able to choose appropriately Know the basic techniques for low-fidelity prototyping Be able to determine and apply the relevant techniques for your project

What is a Prototype? A representation of a design before the final artifacts exist To evoke reactions from stakeholders in the design process Designers Users

Clients Uses of Prototypes Design by doing Clarify goals and requirements Reflective conversation with the materials Give users the experience of use

Look and feel Test specific aspects Compare alternatives Make changes Show feasibility for buy-in Proof of concept

Manage expectations What to Prototype? Prototypes provide the means for examining design problems and evaluating solutions. Selecting the focus

of a prototype is the art of identifying the most important open design questions. Houde and Hill What do Prototypes Prototype? Design Process UNDERSTAND


PROTOTYPE Iterative Prototyping Quality is a function of the number of iterations and refinements a design undergoes before it hits the street.

To get a good idea, get lots of ideas. Enlightened trial and error is better than than the planning of a flawless intellect. FAIL EARLY

(Cost of failure vs. project time curve) From Hans Haenlein, IDEO FAIL OFTEN (Risk vs. iteration curve)

From Hans Haenlein, IDEO 3 stages of prototyping # of ideas INSPIRE EVOLVE

VALIDATE project time LOW prototype RESOLUTION

driven specs spec HIGH driven RESOLUTION prototypes From Hans Haenlein, IDEO Designing the Prototype

Choose what aspects to prototype for relevance to your project goals Identify measurable design goals Good enough to provide feedback but flexible enough for significant changes to be made down the line

What can be a Prototype?

Sketches Diagrams & Frameworks

Hand Made Constructions Machined Constructions Virtual Models Graphics Packaging Spaces Role Play, Experiences Video

Prototypes Look like Work like Experience like .. PROTOTYPE RAPID

(IDEO surgical tool) PROTOTYPE ROUGH Experience Prototyping

Jane Fulton Suri - IDEO From Greenbaum and Kyng, Design at Work 1991 Early Stage Prototypes Low Fidelity (Paper) Work with artifacts

Skits / Informance Understand roles and context Focus on concepts, not detail Low investment in status quo Openness to change Paper Prototype Low-Fidelity Prototype Flipbook

Flipbook Flow Diagrams From a previous cs147 project Be Clever About Faking It Device Mockups

Palm, Utopia,.. Device substitution PC prototype for small device Tethers for wireless Pager for defibrillator

Wizard of Oz techniques Wizard of Oz Some aspects of interface are implemented Operation requires processing that is actually done by a human, not directly visible to the user

The wizard intervention needs to be designed to be believable, both technologically and to the user Fidelity is a Spectrum Medium fidelity Cleaned up but not decorated

Wireframes, Blocks, Greeking, Medium Fidelity Prototypes Breadth vs. Depth Horizontal Prototype Top level

Basic features Vertical Prototype Path in depth Clickthrough or interactive Combinations

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