Religious Affiliation Religious Affiliation Protestants made up the majority of NI population of 1.5 million 2/3 in the 1950s Greater majority in Antrim and Down and in city of Belfast East of the Bann Catholics 1/3 in the 50s West of the Bann Derry and Tyrone Catholic population rose from the 60s and by 90s it was 40% of total pop. (higher birth rate)
Protestant Identity Protestants and Catholics maintained conflicting identities. long history Protestant largely unionist loyalty to the Queen and union with Britain Own school, own clubs, played soccer and rugby. Lived in different areas. Felt threatened by Catholics / insulted by propaganda against them. Protestant Identity
1954 the Flags and Emblems Act to allow people to fly the Union Flag. Act gave power to the RUC to remove any emblem or flag whose display may cause disturbance. Protestants celebrated different traditions and historic events. The main ones being the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne. Loyal Orders Protestant celebrate their culture through associations
such as the Orange Order and the Apprentice Boys of Derry and the Royal Black Institution. The largest is the Orange Order -100,000 members from all classes in Northern society The Orange order celebrated the victory of the army of the Protestant King William III over the Catholic King James II at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. _ Parades on 12th July each year, often these parades have led to attacks on Catholic areas. Close ties between Orange Order and ruling Unionist Party. Most Unionist politicians and gov. ministers were members of the Order.
Catholic Identity Commorate the 1916 rising Favoured Irish unity and end of partition flew the Irish tricolour flag. Followed games organised by GAA and played Irish National Anthem before matches members of RUC and British Army excluded from GAA Ancient Order of the Hibernians Catholic version of the Orange Order.
Catholic Identity Some nationalists / Catholics supported soccer teams but not the ones Protestants supported Catholics Celtic and Protestants Rangers Catholic schools taught the Irish language and Irish history Catholics felt discriminated against by the Protestant majority treated as second class citizens. Ecumenism
Ecumenism is a movement promoting understanding between religions, with the eventual aim of Christian unity. 1948 World Council of Churches set up to promote ecumenism. Catholic church did not join BBC worked to promote ecumenism in NI Ecumenism Paisley was the most vocal opponent of Ecumenism
He founded the Free Presbyterian Church in the 50s and was involved in protests against ecumenism He used his monthly magazine to attack any signs of Ecumenism He attacked BBC for promoting it He attacked the Presbyterians, Methodists and Church of Ireland for their membership of World Council of Churches. Ecumenism Little progress in Ecumenism
in the 50s Protestants viewed Catholics as under the control of the Pope, they complained about the involvement of priests in politics Changes in the catholic church with the Pope John XXIII and the vatican council-it encouraged discussions on ecumenism Also Protestant churches moved for better relations as did Methodists, and Presbyterians.
Paisley saw Ecumenism as a move towards Irish Unity Concerned about the dangers of mixed marriages between Catholics and Protestants Fear of being Bred out by Catlolics Pointed to the Catholic Churchs ban on Catholics going to Trinity as evidence of the power of the Catholic Church. Paisley protested against ONeill visiting Catholic Schools Orange Order also concerned about Ecumenism
Impact of the troubles on Ecumenism Troubles led to greater divisions between Protestants and Catholics but also brought about inter-church co-operation in three ways Meetings of church leaders and their representatives Pleas for peace Meetings of the Joint Group on Social Problems
Appeals for Peace PACE (Protestant and Catholic Encounter), a non-political organisation was set up in 1968 to promote harmony between different communities in NI At the height of the troubles, 8000 Protestants and Catholics went to Ulster Hall in February 1971 to pray for peace. Ballymacscanlon Meeting meeting of all member churches of the ICC 1973 Cultural responses to the Troubles
Symbols and Murals Unionists colours were largely orange (William of Orange) and red, white and blue (Union Flag) Crown used to represent British monarchy, the poppy on remembrance day Most colour seen on the 12th of July flags, buntings, colours painted on kerbs and posts Orange sash worn Nationalist were associated with Green, and
green, white and orange. Easter Lily those who died in fight for Independence One Symbol the red hand used by both sides bit represented different things Unionists it was the six counties to Nationalists the traditional nine counties Symbols used more frequently as Troubles progressed Murals parades Murals Unionist King William,
Battle of the Boyne, Siege of Derry, Red Hand of Ulster - became more anti catholic after Anglo Irish Agreement Nationalists traditionally Irish dancing, music and GAA but after Hunger Strikes they became more political. Parades and Marches During the troubles the number of parades increased. Most parades were held during
marching season Easter Monday to end August There were more unionist parades than nationalists. 70% vs 10% - rest were church parades and trade unions Key organisations involved in the parades were the orange order, the royal black Institution and the apprentice boys. Orange Order organised parades on the 12th July Black Institution 13th July and end of August Apprentice Boys August and December Nationalist Parade St. Patricks day and Our
Ladys Day Parades represented a public display of culture and symbols of each side. Often scene of conflicts 1980s power given to RUC to regulate the parade routes to minimise conflict Poetry and Drama Poets responded to the troubles Seamus Heaney. Michael Longley, Seamus Deane wrote on many different aspects of the troubles Many wrote full length collections dealing with the
troubles Brian Friel Dramatist, reared in a middle class catholic family in Derry Writings with strong political tones 1982 set up the Field Day Theatre Company in Derry with actor Stephen Rea, Heaney and others= plays dealt with culture and clashes between England and Ireland The Apprentice Boys of Derry
Background Oldest of the loyal orders 1st found in 1714 to commemorate the Siege of Derry. In 1688 the armies of King James 11, a Catholic King, surrounded the city of Londonderry, which supported the armies of King William of Orange. The population of the city grew from 3,000 to 30,000 as Protestants from surrounding areas took refuge behind Derrys high walls.
The shutting of the gates August 1688 At the start of the siege 13 apprentice boys slammed the city gates against the army of the Catholic King James II. During the Siege Lieutenant Governor Robert Lundy was an officer in the Williamite army and had been appointed military governor of the city just prior to the siege.
Lundy tried to negotiate a surrender of the city. The citizens of the city saw Lundy as either incompetent or sympathetic to the besieging Jacobites. For the next 105 days Derry refused to surrender NO SURRENDER in spite of hunger and constant bombardment by Jamess army Jamess army also stopped any ships supplying he city. In the summer of 1689, William
sent three ships to break through the barricades and the city was eventually relieved in August 1689 A powerful symbol of Protestant resistance against Catholic domination. The Apprentice Boys of Derry, one of the Protestant Loyal Orders, is based upon this defiant action of "no surrender". New Apprentice Boys can only be initiated inside the city, in ceremonies in August and
December each year. The order holds its main parade in Derry on 12 August to celebrate the relief of the city and the end of the siege. 12th August The siege is commemorated annually by the Apprentice Boys of Derry who stage the week long Maiden City Festival culminating in a parade around the walls of the city by local members, followed by a parade of the city by the full Association
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SIEGE FOR UNIONISTS It crystallises for Unionists the sense of themselves on the island of Ireland. It is the perfect example of how they feel under threat from the Catholic majority and it encourages and celebrates resistance, defiance and a determination not to surrender. It is remembered to reinforce resolve and unity among Unionists in the face of the unchanging threat of Nationalists and Catholics. It is also a celebration of a victory over a Catholic army that secured Protestant power and control in Ireland for centuries. It was a time when the Protestant settlement in Ireland could have been ended and it reminds Protestant Unionists that they should stay strong
and firm and fear and resist the Catholic/ Gaelic majority in Ireland. It reminds Protestant Unionists is that they must be constantly on the alert for the traitor within who wants to compromise, deal with or give in to their enemies. Organisation The Apprentice Boys of Derry is a Protestant fraternal society with a worldwide membership of over 80,000, founded in 1814. They are based in the city of Derry, however, there are Clubs and branches across Ireland, Great Britain and further afield. It is split up into 8 Parent Clubs (named after heros of the siege) and over 200 branches. Each parent club has a branch club in other parts
of NI and in Canada, Scotland and Australia Lord Brookeborough, Terence ONeill and Ian Paisley were all members. They have celebrations to commemorate the Shutting of the Gates and the Relief ofDerry at which there is a parade, church service, burning of Lund y. They parade with their flags, crimson sashes, bowler hats. Membership is open to anyone who professes Christ through the reform ed Protestant faith. They parade as a celebration of their tradition, bringing together people o f their faith. Show No Surrender against the Catholics (SIEGE MENTALITY) Problems Caused by the Apprentice Boys
The Catholics resented the Marches Many of the songs sung by the Apprentice Boyswere o ffensive to Catholics and the Apprentice Boys also did things such as throwing coin s down onto the Catholics in a form of disrespect. In October 1968 there was a civil rights march planne d for Derry (NICRA) but the Apprentice Boys planned a march for the same day. Th is gave the Home Affairs Minister William Craig the excuse to ban both marches. Howev er, as a result, violence followed.
BATTLE OF THE BOGSIDE On 12th August 1969 the Apprentice Boys held a march which sparked off the Battle of the Bogside. At the beginning it was nonviolent but Apprentice Boys did things such as throwing coins. Although there were barricades up, the Catholic Youths began to throw stones which led to the RUC attacking. The British Army was brought in two days later to stop the violence. After this parades were banned for the next 2 years. Then a Parades Commission was set up but the Apprentice Boys refused to co-operate.
In 1989 the Nationalists won control of Derry and allowed that the parades could be brought back. Although this time with no insulting songs or coin throwing! Interpretations of Historians The siege of Derry carries an emotional charge that the more famous Battle of the Boyne lacks. In part, this is simply because the Maiden City (Derry), unlike the river Boyne, is situated within the six Ulster counties which became Northern Ireland in 1921. Ulster men and women participated in the defence of Derry, and their descendants still live there. The story serves to reinforce the political resolve of Ulster Protestants by recalling the unchanging
threat to their faith and liberties by the Catholic majority in Ireland: 'No Surrender', the watchword of the defenders of Derry, has become the arch slogan of loyalism, Brian Lacy. To most of those who march, the marching period is a celebration of their history, culture and religion, while to most of those who do not it is at best a colourful spectacle, at worst an expression of sectarian triumphalism, Michael Hall. Towards Agreement after the Battle of the Bogside In 1970 and 1971 the Apprentice boys parade was not allowed out of the Protestant Waterside area of the city. In 1973 the IRA blew up the statue of George Walker.
A Parades Commission was set up to make decisions on controversial parades and where and how they could march. The commission asked the Apprentice Boys to talk to Nationalist residents in order to reach agreement. The Apprentice Boys refused and the march remained a problem in the city. In 1989 the Nationalists were in control of the Derry City Council. It was also the tercentenary (300 years) of the siege of Derry. In a gesture of goodwill the council gave its support to the organisation of the ceremonies. In 1995 the Apprentice Boys were allowed by the city council to march around the city walls again. The ceremonies no longer had any place for insulting songs or coin
throwing. Interpretations of Historians In no other spot in the North did I feel the surge of pride which an Ulsterman must feel as he thinks back over his own local history. Had I met an Orangeman as I stood on Walker's Bastion I would have wished to take his hand and shake it. If I were an Ulsterman I could never forget Derry. Its siege was a magnificent example of heroic endurance, from the 18th December 1688 when the gates were closed to the 12th August when the relief ships, that had for seven weeks been blocked on the Foyle by a boom, having burst through at the
end of July, received the city and ended its torments, Sen O'Faolin. The Apprentice Boys of Derry and the'Battle of the Bogside 1969 The Battle of the Bogside was a very large communal riot that took place during 1214 August 1969 in Derry, Northern Ireland. The fighting was between residents of the Bogside area (allied under the Derry Citizens' Defence Association) and the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC). The rioting erupted after the RUC attempted to disperse Irish nationalists who were protesting against a loyalist Apprentice Boys
parade along the city walls, past the nationalist Bogside. Rioting continued for three days in the Bogside. The RUC was unable to enter the area and the British Army was deployed to restore order. The riot, which sparked widespread violence elsewhere in Northern Ireland, is commonly seen as one of the first major confrontations in the conflict known as the TroubleS
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