Recognizing the Impact of Bias and Privilege Blair Schneider University of Kansas Mary Anne Holmes University of Nebraska-Lincoln Deborah Love Tulane University Erika Marin-Spiotta
University of Wisconsin Identifying barriers and where the leaky pipelines begin What we are going to cover today: - Barriers for underrepresented groups - Implicit Bias - Privilege The leaky pipeline
For women in the US, the yield in engineering is 20% of the total shown above For African Americans in the US, the yield for all of STEM is only 1-2% of the total Gender bias in student evaluations of faculty Caring Consistent Enthusiastic Fair
Feedback Helpful Knowledgeable Praise Professional Prompt Respectful Responsive Macnell, Driscoll, and Hunt, 2015, Whats in a Name: Exposing Gender Bias in Student Ratings of Teaching: Innov Higher Educ.
Drawing a scientist Chambers, D.W., 1983, Stereotypic Images of the Scientist: The Draw a Scientist Test: Science Education, 67 (2), 255265. Undergraduate lab position Moss-Racusin et al., 2012, Science facultys subtle gender biases favor male students: PNAS.
Identical resumes different races Researchers sent fictitious resumes to help-wanted ads in Boston and Chicago newspapers. To manipulate perceived race, resumes are randomly assigned African-American (Lakisha and Jamal) or Whitesounding names (Emily and Greg). White names receive 50 percent more callbacks for interviews. Callbacks are also more responsive to resume quality for White names than for African-American ones. Whites with higher quality resumes receive 30% more callbacks than those with lower quality resumes. This was not true for the African-American resumes vs quality. The racial gap is uniform across occupation, industry, and employer size.
Bertrand and Mullainathan, 2004, Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination: The American Economic Review. Musical auditions Goldin and Rouse, 2000, Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of "Blind" Auditions on Female Musicians: The American Economic Review. Penalized for being parents (or not!) When evaluating equally qualified same-gender job applicants
Mothers: Fathers: were rated as less competent were rated as more committed and less committed to paid to paid work than non-fathers. work than non-mothers. were offered higher starting salaries than non-fathers. were less likely to be recommended for hire,
promotion, and management, and were offered lower starting salaries than nonmothers. Correll, Benard, and Paik, 2007, Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty: American Journal of Sociology. Letters of Recommendation Men are more often described with superlatives and in agentive terms (e.g., outstanding scholar or researcher)
Letters for women used gendered adjectives or qualifiers (e.g., female faculty) Letters for women tend to be shorter and contain less detail about commitments to academia and specific skills as researchers Women were described in relational terms (e.g., caring, compassionate, etc.) Schmader, T., Whitehead, J. and Wysocki, V.H., 2007, A Linguistic Comparison of Letters of Recommendation for Male and Female Chemistry and Biochemistry Job Applicants: Sex Roles, v. 57, p. 509-514.
Barriers to under-represented groups in stem At your tables, take a few minutes to identify barriers underrepresented groups in STEM face from K-12 to entering the workforce. Be prepared to report out Barriers to under-represented groups in stem What is implicit bias and why do we care?
Implicit bias is the bias in judgement and/or behavior that results from subtle cognitive processes (i.e. they often operate on a subconscious level). Develops from: Developmental history: self observations over time, as well as observing the behavior of family and friends. Parents often play a key role in development of implicit biases. Personal experiences: biases that develop based on experiences you have over a certain time period. For example, racial bias white people who associate negative feelings or terms when they see black people because the media portrays them as criminals, etc. Cultural stereotypes Self influence: implicit egotism we think pretty highly of ourselves and research has
shown we subconsciously choose products that have names similar to ours or live in locations related to our birthdays (February Lane), etc. National Center for State Courts, Helping Courts Address Implicit Bias: http://www.ncsc.org/~/media/Files/PDF/Topics/Gender%20and %20Racial%20Fairness/IB_report_033012.ashx Implicit bias in our lives Gender biases Racial biases Cultural biases Age biases
And many more Implicit bias System 1 versus System 2 System 1 operates automatically and quickly, with little or no effort and no sense of voluntary control. System 2 allocates attention to the effortful mental activities that demand it, including complex computations. The operations of System 2 are often associated with the subjective experience of agency, choice,
and concentration. Thinking Fast and Slow, Daniel Kahneman Example: Unconscious Racial Bias Police officers: the decision to shoot Participants in this study played a computer game in which they needed to shoot dangerous armed characters as quickly as possible (by pressing a shoot button), but decide not to shoot unarmed characters (by pressing a dont shoot button).
Some of the characters held a gun, like a revolver or pistol, and some of the characters held innocuous objects, like a wallet or cell phone. In addition, half of the characters were White, and half were Black. Study participants more quickly chose to shoot armed Black characters than armed White characters and more quickly chose not to shoot unarmed White characters than unarmed Black characters. They also committed more false alarm errors, electing to shoot unarmed Black characters more than unarmed White characters and electing not to shoot armed White characters more than armed Black characters (Correll, Park, Judd, & Wittenbrink, 2002).
National Center for State Courts, Helping Courts Address Implicit Bias: http://www.ncsc.org/~/media/Files/PDF/Topics/Gender%20and %20Racial%20Fairness/IB_report_033012.ashx Physicians and treatment decisions Physicians routinely make crucial decisions about medical care for patients whose lives hang in the balance. One study showed that the implicit racial biases of ER physicians predicted fewer thrombolysis treatment recommendations when the patient was described as Black as opposed to White (Green, Carney, Pallin, Ngo, Raymond, Iezzoni, & Banaji, 2007).
The implicit racial biases of White physicians also seem to play a role in predicting how positively or negatively Black patients respond to the medical interaction (Penner, Dovidio, West, Gaertner, Albrecht, Daily, & Markova, 2010), which might lead to a greater incidence of malpractice lawsuits (cf. Stelfox, Gandhi, Orav, & Gustafson, 2005). National Center for State Courts, Helping Courts Address Implicit Bias: http://www.ncsc.org/~/media/Files/PDF/Topics/Gender%20and %20Racial%20Fairness/IB_report_033012.ashx Managers and hiring decisions When screening a pool of job candidates, hiring managers must review
hundreds if not thousands of resumes of qualified applicants. Studies show that interview and selection decisions reflect bias against minorities (e.g., Dovidio & Gaertner, 2000; Bertrand & Mullainathan, 2004; Ziegert & Hanges, 2005). In one such study, hiring managers were three times less likely to call highly qualified Arab job candidates in for an interview compared to equally qualified candidates of the racial majority. Interestingly, the implicit racial bias scores of hiring managers predicted their likelihood of offering callbacks to the Arab job applicants (Rooth, 2010). National Center for State Courts, Helping Courts Address Implicit Bias: http://www.ncsc.org/~/media/Files/PDF/Topics/Gender%20and
%20Racial%20Fairness/IB_report_033012.ashx Judges and jurors Researchers identified all cases (n=44) in which a Black male defendant was convicted of murdering a White victim and presented a photograph of each defendant to participants, who in turn rated each defendant on how stereotypically Black he appeared to be. 57.5% of those judged as more stereotypically Black were sentenced to death, compared to 24.4% of those who were perceived as less stereotypically Black (Eberhardt, Davies, Purdie-Vaughns, & Johnson, 2006).
Eberhardt and colleagues explain this effect in the context of other empirical research (Eberhardt, Goff, Purdie, & Davies, 2004) that demonstrates a tendency to implicitly associate Black Americans with crime. Other studies further illustrate racial biases in the context of detain-release decisions, verdicts, and sentencing (e.g., Gazal-Ayal & Sulitzeanu-Kenan, 2010; Sommers & Ellsworth, 2001). National Center for State Courts, Helping Courts Address Implicit Bias: http://www.ncsc.org/~/media/Files/PDF/Topics/Gender%20and %20Racial%20Fairness/IB_report_033012.ashx
Participant activity Personal Reflection: Using the sheets provided to you, describe any instances where you have experienced implicit bias with regards to: 1) Faculty and/or staff in your department 2) Undergraduate students 3) Graduate students *These implicit bias scenarios can include situations that have happened to you OR situations where you have imposed a bias towards someone else. Privilege
Understanding the role of privilege Privilege is an unconscious barrier that is usually the root of systemic barriers among under-represented groups. Privilege refers to the concept that certain people experience certain privileges simply because of a particular aspect of their identity (for example, they are white, or male, or heterosexual) privileges that are often overlooked. Privilege is not necessarily something that individual people seek out. Instead, it is something that shapes and is shaped by American
society. It provides often invisible benefits to people of one status that people of another status cannot access. http://hrweb.mit.edu/system/files/privilege_div.pdf Privilege Walk The purpose of the Privilege Walk Activity is to learn to recognize how power and privilege can affect our lives even when we are not aware it is happening. The purpose is not to blame anyone for having more power or privilege or
for receiving more help in achieving goals, but to have an opportunity to identify both obstacles and benefits experienced in our life. Understanding Obstacles to Learning About Privilege Defensiveness and Feelings of Personal Judgement Guilt or Shame: Feeling Blamed for the Suffering of Others The Myth of Meritocracy The Tendency to Refocus on Marginalized Identities Entitlement and the Fear of Loss
Hopelessness in the Face of Injustice Wise, T. and Case, K.A., 2013, Pegagogy for the Privileged, in Case, K.A. (ed), Deconstructing Privilege: Teaching and Learning as Allies in the Classroom: Routledge. Examples of white female privilege Whether I use checks, credit cards, or cash, I can count on my skin color not to work against the appearance that I am financially reliable. I can, if I wish, arrange to be in the company of people of my race most of the time. If I should need to move, I can be pretty sure of renting or purchasing housing in an area which I can afford and in which I would want to live.
I can be sure that my children will be given curricular materials that testify to the existence of their race. I am never asked to speak for all the people of my racial group. If a traffic cop pulls me over or if the IRS audits my tax return, I can be sure I haven't been singled out because of my race. A day without women Day Without a Woman protest sparks debate on white privilege The Day Without a Woman strike is going to be mostly a day without privileged women
Participant activity 1) Personal Reflection: Using the sheets provided to you, identify some examples of o Your own personal privilege o How privilege may affect your colleagues o How privilege may affect your students 2) Then as a group discuss what you can be doing in your own departments to combat these instances of bias and privilege. Be prepared
to report out to the large group at the end. What can you do? Understand your own implicit bias. Example of implicit bias tests can be found here: https:// implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/education.html http://www.lookdifferent.org/what-can-i-do/bias-cleanse Consciously acknowledge group and individual differences (i.e., adopt a multiculturalism approach to egalitarianism rather than a color-blindness strategy in which one tries to ignore these differences) Routinely check thought processes and decisions for possible bias (i.e., adopt a thoughtful, deliberative, and self-aware process for inspecting how ones decisions were made)
In a 2014 study, Reducing Implicit Racial Preferences: A Comparative Investigation of 17 Interventions, psychologist Brian Nosek of the University of Virginia and his colleagues found that the most successful techniques for mitigating unconscious racial bias employed the simple power of suggestion. Merely introducing subjects to examples and narratives that ran counter to stereotypes dramatically reduced their implicit bias. How to counteract your own implicit biases Identify sources of stress and reduce them in the decision-making environment
Identify sources of ambiguity and impose greater structure in the decision-making context Institute feedback mechanisms Increase exposure to stereotyped group members (e.g., seek out greater contact with the stigmatized group in a positive context) RECOGNIZE YOUR OWN PRIVILEGE The 5 Ds of Bystander Intervention Direct
Distract Delegate Delay Document Case Studies 1) Where is the implicit bias shown in this case study? 2) How would you categorize the microaggression in this scenario? 3) What could you do in this situation to address this? Department GEO hosts a weekly colloquium series to introduce undergraduate and graduate students
to prominent scientists in different fields of the Earth Sciences. The colloquia are well-attended each week by students and faculty. A Distinguished Professor from a neighboring institution has been brought in to talk about their work. During the presentation, the professor uses metaphors to relate his research to a Google Search Engine and uses two of the attendees for an example. First, he points to Bob, who is a senior male faculty member. The professor declares that Bob would go into Google and search for geophysical textbooks. Then he points at the woman sitting next to Bob, who is also a faculty member of the department, and says Or this young lady would go into Google and search for a pretty blue scarf to match her pretty blue sweater.
Case Studies 1) Where is the implicit bias shown in this case study? 2) How would you categorize the microaggression in this scenario? 3)
What could you do in this situation to address this? Department ENGR is a growing engineering department at a research-intensive university with 14 faculty: 13 men and one woman. For the first faculty meeting of the academic year, the main agenda item is the development of a strategic, five-year departmental research plan. Discussion is lively and includes a variety of innovative ideas for focusing and growing the departments research output and quality. At one point during the discussion, your female colleague suggests that the department establish a summer research program for female high school seniors. The departments top faculty in research
funding cuts off the woman with a frustrated We really need to focus our discussion on ideas to improve our graduate program, not some outreach program for girls. Unable to respond or get a word in edgewise, you see your female colleague stop participating in the discussion. Case Studies 1) Where is the implicit bias shown in this case study? 2) How would you categorize the microaggression in this scenario? 3) What could you do in this situation to address this? You are attending a conference and have brought along one of your graduate students, Ian, a young man who is African American. As you walk him through
the poster session, you stop at a long-time colleagues poster to discuss their research and ask questions since it is similar to what you are working on. You introduce Ian to your colleague and let them know that he has just started working with you. Your colleague shakes Ians hand and says Great! Are you a first generation student? You are certainly working with a great adviser! Q & A Session Participant activity We are going to watch a short film, put together by the University of
Washington ADVANCE Center for Institutional Change, and answer some discussion questions afterwards. The video plays through a search committees discussion for a new faculty member but this can be applied to ANY evaluation level, such as grad school applications, job applications, promotion review, etc.
Benjamin Levy, MD Assistant Professor ... PFS and OS benefit with pembrolizumab with chemotherapy was observed irrespective of PD-L1 TPS. ORR and DoR were greater with pembrolizumab with chemotherapy than with chemotherapy alone.
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Literary Elements in ... 3 kinds Situational irony - contrasts what the reader expects vs. what actually happens Dramatic Irony - when audience knows what will happen before the characters Verbal Irony - what is said is exaggerated or means...
Sentence Pattern #3 Sentence Pattern #4 Introductory participles Examples of sentences with introductory participles (Pattern 4 sentences) Sitting alone in front of the t.v., Marcy regretted that she turned down Marvin's invitation to go to the party. Feeling guilty about...
living, relaxing, singing. harmony, free. Peace. Giving Poem. Giving poetry names a subject that gives an interesting or unusual gift. ... The Challenger went up into space. On board were astronauts and a teacher. Trying to find an unexplored place.
Answer the following about the ecological hierarchy. What level has species that can interbreed? What level connects ecosystems? What is the largest level that includes the rest? Answer: Population, landscape, biosphere
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