Psych 2 Principles of Psychology Christopher Gade Office ...

Psych 2 Principles of Psychology Christopher Gade Office ...

Psych 120 General Psychology Christopher Gade Office: 1030A Office hours: MW 4:30-5:30 Email: [email protected] Class MW 1:30-4:30 Room 2240 Todays Lecture is on Developmental Psychology! What do developmental psychologists study?

Genetics Development and Change Cognitive Personality and Emotion Genetics and Development Why do developmental psychologists

study genetics? Attempt to determine heritability Heritability: an estimate of the variance within a population that is due to heredity. Note: This a chance for us to revisit the nature versus nurture issue. Attempt to identify specific genes and genotypes

Chromosomes 23 pairs of strands containing hereditary material that are located in our cells. Genes sections of chromosomes that control several chemical reactions that direct development. How else do developmental psychologists study heritability? - Sibling studies Identical (monozygotic) and fraternal (dizygotic) twins

Siblings (similar to fraternal twins) Adopted children Twins reared together compared to twins reared apart Minnesota Twin Registry (Thomas Bouchard) Sweeden Twin Research

Example of Correlation Results found in Twins Studies Jim Lewis and Divorced (Linda) Remarried (Betty) Middle Class Romantic/affectionate Son James Alan Dog Toy Woodshop Stock car racing Drinking Miller Lite Chain Smoker Chewed nails to the nub Migraines

Jim Springer Divorced (Linda) Remarried (Betty) Middle Class Romantic/affectionate Son James Alan Dog Toy Woodshop Stock car racing Drinking Miller Lite Chain Smoker Chewed nails to the nub Migraines Do these twin studies tell us everything we need to know about genetic influence?

The influence of genetics on behavior in society The influence of experience on behavior in society The influence of genetics and experience on societys reaction to the individual The influence of societys reactions on behavior.

The circular pattern that goes on, and on, Physical Development before Birth Fertilized Egg (sperm and the egg) 1 cell (multiplies a lot) Zygote (0-9 days)

1 week over 100 cells (approximately have been reproduced. 10 days the zygote attaches itself to the wall of the mothers uterus. Physical Development before Birth (cont.) Embryo (2 weeks)

Little to no movement Very little recognizable human shape 6 weeks first movement Fetus (8-9 weeks) Human form

Specialized body parts A TAIL! Much more movement Other Milestones Before Birth 28 weeks peak of neuron concentration

Neurons are multiplying at a rate of million neurons per minute for a short period of time during development. 33 weeks first conclusive recognition of mothers voice 36 weeks can turn head and eyes in response to sounds 6 months (3rd trimester) capable of surviving outside of the womb (probable, but not certain) At Birth Little to no control over most muscles

Horrible visual abilities (experience and development) 23 million neurons in the brain / nervous system Very few neural connections Few reflexes

Rooting Sucking Grasping Babinski Stepping So What Have We Learned? We learned about the relationship between genetics and developmental

psychology. We learned about the terminology and physical development of children before birth. Now what? In the next two sections, well discuss the cognitive and social development of individuals after they are born.

Our main focus for the next section will be on Jean Piaget and his theories about the cognitive development of children. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) While earning his education, Piaget worked under Carl Jung, and did work with Alfred Binet in his administration of intelligence tests. Became interested in the cognitive

development of children. Began observing the development of his children. From these observations, Piaget was able to establish his own terminology and theories of how normal children develop cognitively. Piagets Theories of Intelligence Schemas a concept, or framework, that organizes and interprets information.

Equilibrium a cognitive state of mind in children where there is harmony between information presented to a child and their present schemas. Disequilibrium a cognitive state of mind in children where new information is not in harmony with their current schemas. Assimilation interpreting ones new experience in terms of ones existing schema.

Accommodation adapting ones current schemas to incorporate new information. Doggy Doggy?? ? Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor stage (birth to almost 2 years of age)

Preoperational stage (just before 2 years to 7 years of age) Concrete operational stage (about 7 to 11 years of age) Formal operational stage (11 years on) The Are You Smarter Than a ____ Year-Old Game Sensorimotor Stage

Experience the world through the senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing, and grasping). Object permanence 11:50-14:00 Sense of self Stranger anxiety

Preoperational Stage Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning. Distinguishing appearance from reality Egocentrism Symbolism

14:00-18:15 Language development Concrete Operational Stage Understanding analogies and performing arithmetical operations. Conservation

Mathematical transformations Formal Operational Stage Abstract reasoning Moral reasoning begins to develop Note: theres a large amount of

skepticism as to whether or not this stage actually exists. If everyone in this class studies hard, everyone in this class will earn an A. John and his sister Sally both want to go home from school, but they only have one bike. This means that one of them will get to ride the bike home, while the other will have to walk.

Everyone in this class studied hard. John rode his bike home. Tommy can run faster than Jenny. Jenny can run faster than Mark. Mark can run faster than Beth. Who can run faster, Tommy or What did we learn? We learned about Jean Piaget and his theories of development.

We learned about the different stages of development drawn out by Piaget. We had our first introduction to theories about cognitive development. In the final portion of class Other theories of cognitive development. Theories of moral

development. More terminology and ideas associated with development. What have we discussed about development? Genetics Piagets theories of cognitive

development What will we discuss now? Vygotskys theories of cognitive development Kohlbergs theories of moral development

Eriksons theories of identity Revisiting Piagets Theories of Development Children go through different, set stages of development as they progress toward adulthood.

These stages are distinct, age specific, and cannot be sped up through adult help. Lev Vygotsky (18961934) Researched the ideas of cognitive development that were described by Jean Piaget. Agreed with the idea that a developmental process in cognitive skills does take place.

Argued against the contention that this cognitive development is set, and cannot be accelerated. Vygotskys Theories of Development Contended that cognitive development occurs through gradual and continual growth. Believed that instead of being in different developmental stages, kids are in different

zones of proximal development. Proposed that through a method of instruction he termed as scaffolding, a child could learn cognitive concepts more Lawrence Kohlberg (19271987) Worked under the tutelage of Jean Piaget. Chose to examine development from a moral

perspective. Argued that similar to cognitive development, children also go through stages of moral development throughout their lives. Contended that children progress through these stages in a set order, but that people did not necessarily advance through all of these stages in their life. The Story Of Heinz

In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid 2000 for the radium and charged $20,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $ 10,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the Age Differences in Moral

Development Concerns about Kohlbergs Theories of Moral Development Cultural influence Different forms of moral development Gender differences in moral orientation

Pre-Conventional - self Conventional - others Post-Conventional - combination Carol Gilligan The difference between behavior and moral responses Erik Erikson (19021994) Born in Germany. Abandoned by his biological father, and adopted

by his Jewish step-father. Was an outcast in both the Jewish community (for his Nordic appearance), and at school (for being Jewish). As a result of this teasing, he became interested in the development of a sense of self identity that children go through. Eriksons Research Worked under Sigmund Freud, and his

daughter Anna Freud. Examined how a childs sense of self identity develops throughout the life-span. Agreed with many of Freuds theories about development and childhood dilemmas, but he did have a few VERY important ideas that differed from Freuds. Believed that cultures influenced the different dilemmas and developmental phases that children experience.

Concluded that despite these differences across cultures, children progress a series of 8 (instead of 6) phases of development. What did we learn about in todays last section? We concluded our examination of different theorists that study development in children.

We learned about Vygotskys cognitive development theory We learned about Kohlbergs moral development theory We learned about Eriksons self identity developmental

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