Psy 120 Human Development - Oakton Community College

Psy 120 Human Development - Oakton Community College

Psy 120 Human Development Womb to tomb Cannot get credit for 120 and 211 at OCC Fast paced to the very end

Jan Thompson-Wilda 219, 847-635-1477 22nd year at OCC Student Development Faculty Psy 120 Human Development Chapter 1The Study of Human Development

Formal Study of Human Development Human Development: The scientific study of how humans develop Main questions: How do people change throughout their lives? What characteristics remain stable?

Developmental Processes Change and Stability 2 kinds of change Quantitative change change in number or amount Qualitative change change in kind, structure, or organization Despite change, there

is also underlying stability Basic Questions about Development Which aspects of development are universal, and which vary from one individual or group to the next? are continuous, and which are not? are more or less fixed (like marble) and difficult to change, and which are relatively malleable and easy to change (like clay)?

What makes development happen? Guiding Principles Development results from constant interplay of biology and the environment. Development occurs in multilayered context. Development is a dynamic, reciprocal process.

Development is cumulative. Development occurs throughout the lifespan. Domains of Development Physical development Cognitive development Social and emotional development

Human Development TodayGoals of This Scientific Discipline Modification Description Prediction Explanation

Periods of the Life Span Social construction 8 periods generally agreed upon Individual differences exist, but there are particular needs and tasks that must be met at certain stages for normal development to occur

Research Methods and Designs Theories Sets of statements that propose general principles of development Predictions or Hypotheses An educated guess that is testable by data collection and analysis Theories of Development Classical Theories

Psychoanalytic theory Freuds theory of psychosexual development Eriksons theory of psychosocial development Learning theory Behaviorism Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Social learning theory Cognitive-Developmental theory

Psychoanalytic--development shaped by unconscious forces that motivate human behavior Psychoanalytic Perspective Sigmund Freud: Psychosexual Development Erik Erikson: Psychosocial Development

Freud Development is shaped by unconscious forces that motivate behavior Idpleasure principle Egoreality principle Superegoconscience shoulds, oughts Psychosexual development

Oral Anal Phallic Latency Genital Erikson Psychosocial Development

8 stages Competing tendencies in personality (crises) These issues must be resolved for healthy ego development Must balance positive and negative tendency at each stage

Learningdevelopment results from experiences in the environment Learning Perspective Behaviorism Social Learning Theory BehaviorismClassical Conditioning Pavlovs experiments

A natural response to a stimulus is transferred to a second stimulus BehaviorismOperant Conditioning Individuals learn from operating on the environment

Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Reinforcement process by which a behavior is strengthened, increasing the likelihood it will be repeated http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=ejjZZNGfIOM&feature=relat

ed Punishmentprocess by which a behavior is weakened, decreasing the likelihood it will be repeated Social Learning Theory http://www.youtube.com/watch ?feature=endscreen&v=ikTxfID Yx6Q&NR=1

Not exactly, but cute. This is more like it. http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=8ZXOp5PopIA&feature=rela ted Albert Bandura Modeling, or observational learning Model is usually someone powerful or admired, similar to you,

when you see the model rewarded for the behavior you are observing Cognitive-Developmental Theory Emphasizes changes in thinking over the lifespan

Piagetstage theory Organizationthe tendency to create categories Schemespeople create these increasingly complex cognitive

structures for organizing information AdaptationAdjustment to new information from the environment

Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operational Formal Operational Assimilation Accommodation

Equilibrationconstant striving for balance, equilibriumshift from assimilation to accommodation Theories of Development Contemporary Theories Ecological perspective Sociocultural perspective Behavioral genetics Evolutionary perspective Dynamic systems theory

Ecological perspective Bronfenbrenners 5 Interlocking Contextual Systems Development occurs through increasingly complex processes of regular, active, two-way interaction between the developing person and the immediate environment The contextthe ecological systemeither supports or stifles growth

Sociocultural Perspective Emphasizes the ways development involves adaptation to specific cultural demands Behavioral Genetics Emphasizes the inherited bases of

behavior Reciprocol influences between genes and environment Evolutionary Perspective Emphasizes how behavior develops as a result of adaptation to

environment Dynamic Systems Perspective Emphasizes that all facets of development, domains, context are part of a dynamic, constantly changing system The Scientific Study of Development

The scientific method: A systematic, step-by-step procedure for testing ideas. Research methods Observational research Naturalistic observation Participant observation Structured observation Self-reports

Standardized tests Reliability Validity Basic Research Designs Case studies Correlational studies Experiments Groups and variables Random assignment Laboratory, field and natural experiments

Figure 1.3: Positive and Negative Correlations 32 The Scientific Method Studying change over time Longitudinal research Cross-sectional studies

Accelerated longitudinal design 33 Figure 1.4: Research Designs for Studies of Development 34

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