Principles of Training

Principles of Training

PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING Higher PE Specificity Your training has to be specific to your performance needs for your chosen activity and must be relevant to your own levels of fitness and ability. You would need to look closely at the activity and assess the areas of fitness which are crucial to performance in the activity and your role within it To develop Cardio Respiratory Endurance, the drills will be performed continuously at a moderate intensity for a long period

of time (20 minutes) whereas for speed endurance the drills will be performed at a higher intensity for a shorter period of time with a rest for recovery in between. Progression Progression is where you gradually make the exercises harder to ensure that you are pushing yourself and seeing ongoing development. If the exercises stayed the same the body would gradually become used to the task and no further development would happen. The underlying fundamental principle of training is that whatever demands you make of your body, the body will adjust to cope with the demand. If you ask your body to work for a longer

time without rest, it will become more endurable etc. Regardless of the initial level of work rate, the group of muscles will slowly adapt to the increased intensity of work. Overload Like progression you are increasing the demands on the body. However overload means that you stress the body to a point where it is on the edge of breaking down. However the body then adapt s to this making it ultimately stronger and able to cope with the extreme physical demands that your activity may place on you. Reversibility All the alterations that the body, group of muscles or energy

systems make, can slowly reduce or not be maintained if the training programme is not carried out regularly. The adaptations that the body makes during training can be lost if training is interrupted for any length of time. This of course may be an unforeseen problem such as injury or illness. However, the longer the performer had been training before the set-back, the slower the loss of training and the quicker he/she will regain their fitness level after resuming training. If you exercise less than usual, your fitness decreases; and if you exercise the same as usual, your fitness stays the same. Tedium Doing the same thing over and over will cause boredom. It is

therefore to keep changing your training so that its stays exciting and challenging without you become bored. Set goals, playing music or creating competition will help you relieve the tediousness of a training session and can therefore keep you focused on what you want to achieve. Frequency How 3 often should you train? times per week at the start of the programme Rest days allows the body to recover

Muscles adapt to the workload Overtraining results in injury, fatigue and lack of motivation which is counter productive Training fewer times would take longer to bring about any training effect as the body would not be under any stress. Frequency Your depends on: initial level of fitness Time

and facilities that are available to you Type of improvement desired Intensity How hard you train? You must train at an appropriate level so that you will OVERLOAD your body (put more pressure on your body than normal). In aerobic endurance training, your heart rate must be at 70% of maximum in the training zone. For speed endurance work your heart rate must be at 85% of maximum heart rate (180bpm or more). In speed endurance work, the intensity of work is always high but can be varied by adjusting the amount of recovery time you allow between bursts of activity.

Forces skills and fitness to be performed at high intensity forcing quick decisions. To work without training zones for age and aspect of fitness would result in training being pointless. Training types must reflect the demands of the activity. Time (duration) How This long you train?

refers to the length of time that a performer trains for, for example: The length of each session should be at least 20 to 30 minutes to reflect the activity The length of the training programme e.g. 8 week programme Aerobic weeks. Speed Fewer endurance training requires a longer training programme of about 10 endurance training requires a much shorter 8 week programme.

weeks training would result in less progress and longer to reach Cardio Respiratory endurance training goal. We would get fitter naturally by simply playing but working to a specific training programme using the principles of training would waste less time and speed endurance would develop quicker. REMEMBER! S P O R T F I T Exam Type Question 1. (a) Describe one session to develop physical factors.

(b) Explain four reasons why a performer may re-prioritise the focus of a Personal Development Plan for physical factors. 6. (a) (i) Describe a goal you set for one factor within a PDP that you carried out. (ii) (iii) Explain the reasons why you set this goal. Describe one approach you used to achieve this goal.

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