Introduction to CERCLA SESSION 1 CARLYN WINTER PRISK

Introduction to CERCLA SESSION 1 CARLYN WINTER PRISK

Introduction to CERCLA SESSION 1 CARLYN WINTER PRISK U.S. EPA REGION 3 OBJECTIVE OF CERCLA Reduce and eliminate threats to human health and the environment posed by uncontrolled hazardous waste sites;

and Respond to releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances. LEGAL FOUNDATION Legal foundation for conducting response actions:

Statutes Executive orders and delegations Regulations Policy and guidance Case law Site-specific documents

STATUTORY AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK STATUTES CERCLA, as amended by: Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), 1986 Asset Conservation, Lender Liability, and Deposit Insurance Protection Act (Lender Liability Act), 1996 Superfund Recycling Equity Act of 1999 (SREA or Recycling Amendments) Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields

Revitalization Act (Brownfields Amendments), 2002 EXECUTIVE ORDERS E.O. 12580 and 13016 STATUTORY AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK STATUTES CERCLA, as amended by SARA and other Acts EXECUTIVE ORDERS

E.O. 12580 and 13016 STATUTORY AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK REGULATIONS National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) POLICY AND GUIDANCE Available on EPAs website

STATUTORY AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK CASE LAW Federal District and Appeals Courts, U.S. Supreme Court SITE SPECIFIC DOCUMENTS Decision documents, settlement documents HIERARCHY OF STATUTES, REGULATIONS, POLICY AND GUIDANCE

Policy & Guidance EPA HQ EPA Regions Regulations NCP (40 CFR Part 300) Executive Orders E.O. 12580 E.O. 13016 Statutes

CERCLA SARA HOW DOES CERCLA WORK? Section 104(a) - President is authorized to respond to release or threatened release. Executive orders President delegates authority to EPA and other federal agencies.

RESPONSE ACTIONS CERCLA defines three kinds of response action: Removal Remedial Enforcement OVERVIEW OF CERCLA ENFORCEMENT OBJECTIVE: Encourage or compel responsible parties to perform removal or remedial work or

reimburse EPA for performing it. Enforcement includes EPA oversight of work performed by responsible parties. DETERMINING IF A RESPONSE IS AUTHORIZED KEY DEFINITIONS:

Release Threatened release Hazardous substance Facility RELEASE CERCLA 101(22) any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting,

emptying, discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping, or disposing into the environment (including the abandonment or discarding of barrels, containers, and other closed receptacles containing any hazardous substance or pollutant or contaminant) THREATENED RELEASE Not defined in CERLCA Authority to respond to threatened release contained in National Contingency Plan.

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE CERCLA 101(14) Toxic or hazardous substance designated by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, TSCA, CAA, Sold Waste Disposal Act; any element, compound, mixture, solution, or substance designated pursuant to section 102 of CERCLA.

FACILITY CERCLA 101(9) The term facility means (A) any building, structure, installation, equipment, pipe or pipeline (including any pipe into a sewer or publicly owned treatment works), well, pit, pond, lagoon, impoundment, ditch, landfill, storage container, motor vehicle, rolling stock, or aircraft, or (B) any site or area where a hazardous substance has been deposited, stored, disposed of, or placed, or

otherwise come to be located LIABILITY UNDER CERCLA Liability is defined in CERCLA Section 107(a). A party is liable for response costs when: There is a release or a threatened release; Of a hazardous substance; From a facility into the environment; Which causes response costs to be incurred; and The party is included in at least one class of persons

described in CERCLA Section 107(a). LIABILITY UNDER CERCLA (CONTD) FOUR KINDS OF RESPONSE COST: Cost of actions taken by the United States, States, or tribes that are not inconsistent with the NCP; Cost of actions taken by other parties that are consistent with the NCP; Cost of natural resource damage restoration; and Cost of health assessments performed by ATSDR.

SECTION 107(A) DEFINES LIABLE PARTIES AS: The current owner and operator of a facility; Owner or operator of a facility at the time hazardous substances were disposed of;

Person who arranged for disposal or treatment of hazardous substances; and Person who transported and chose the disposal location of hazardous substances.

LIABILITY UNDER CERCLA (CONTD) CERCLA Section 107(a) imposes strict, retroactive, and joint and several liability. WHICH MEANS? STRICT LIABILITY A PARTY IS LIABLE EVEN IF: The problems caused by the release of hazardous

substances were unforeseeable; The partys actions were legal at the time they occurred; and State-of-the-art waste management practices were used when the materials were disposed of. RETROACTIVE LIABILITY A PARTY MAY BE LIABLE FOR ACTIONS THAT TOOK PLACE PRIOR TO

ENACTMENT OF CERCLA. JOINT AND SEVERAL LIABILITY ANY LIABLE PARTY OR GROUP OF PARTIES MAY BE HELD LIABLE FOR ALL RESPONSE COSTS AT A SITE. REFERENCES Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2011-title42/html/USCODE-2011-title42-chap103

.htm PRP Search Manual, Section 1.1 (Overview of CERCLA) http:// www2.epa.gov/enforcement/report-prp-search-manual-2009-edition-2011-addendum EPA CERCLA Overview Webpage http://www.epa.gov/superfund/policy/cercla.htm National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), 40 CFR Part 300 http://www2.epa.gov/emergency-response-national-oil-and-hazardous-substances-polluti on-contingency-plan-ncp-overview

; http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisidx_03/40cfr300_03.html REFERENCES (CONTD) EPA Superfund Cleanup Policies and Guidance Documents http://cfpub.epa.gov/compliance/resources/policies/cleanup/superfund/ EPA Superfund Enforcement Webpage http://www.epa.gov/compliance/cleanup/superfund/index.html EPA Superfund Liability Webpage http://www.epa.gov/compliance/cleanup/superfund/liability.html

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